Zygentoma (Figure 5.4B) are broadly similar to Microcoryphia, and only the more important differences in structure will be noted here. The body of Zygentoma is dorsoven-trally flattened and may or may not have scales. Compound eyes are reduced or absent and ocelli do not occur (except in Lepidotrichidae). The maxillary palps are 5-segmented, and the mandibles have a dicondylic articulation with the head, as do those of pterygote insects. The legs include 2-4 tarsal segments. Abdominal styli normally occur only on segments 7-9, though in Nicoletiidae they are found on segments 2-9. Eversible vesicles are absent in many Lepismatidae but occur on abdominal segments 2-7 in Nicoletiidae and Lepidotrichidae. In most species the cerci are long, multiannulate structures that diverge sharply from the body (Figure 5.4B). However, in some inquiline Nicoletiidae the cerci are very short.

Four to eight Malpighian tubules are present. Ten pairs of spiracles occur and the tracheal system is well developed compared to that of Microcoryphia. On each side of the body a longitudinal trunk links the tracheae originating from the spiracles, and transverse segmental tracheae unite one side with the other. The female reproductive system includes 2-7 panoistic ovarioles, a spermatheca, and accessory glands. The number of lobes comprising each testis is greater than in Microcoryphia (eight lobes in Lepismatidae, many in Nicoleti-idae and Lepidotrichidae).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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