Grylloblattodea (Figure 7.13) are elongate, wingless insects that as adults are 2-3.5 cm long. Their head is flattened and prognathous. It carries well-developed mandibulate mouthparts and long, filiform antennae. The compound eyes are reduced to a few ommatidia or are entirely absent. There are no ocelli. The thoracic segments are more or less identical, though the prothorax is slightly larger than the other two. The six legs are similar in structure,

FIGURE 7.13. Grylloblatta campodeiformis (Grylloblattodea). [From E. M. Walker, 1914, A new species of Orthoptera, forming a new genus and family, Can. Entomol. 46:93-99. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada.]

each with a large coxa and a five-segmented tarsus. The abdomen has 10 obvious segments and the 11th is represented by the epiproct and paraprocts. The ovipositor of females comprises three pairs of valves. The ninth sternite in males carries a pair of asymmetric coxites, each bearing a small style. The cerci are long, eight-segmented structures.

The internal structure is orthopteroid.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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