Structure

At first glance, these insects appear to be a "hybrid" of a mantis and a stick insect (hence the name of the order) (Figure 7.16). They range in length from about 11-25 mm. The hypognathous head has typical mandibulate mouthparts and compound eyes, but ocelli do not occur. The long antennae have a detailed structure different to that of other insects. The subgenal sulcus follows a very different course to that seen in other insects as a result of a dorsal shift in the position of the anterior tentorial arms. The prothoracic pleuron is large and fully exposed. Wings are absent. The legs are generally similar, except that the fore and mid tibiae (and to some extent the femora) have two ventral rows of short spines, the fore femora are thickened, and the hind femora are slightly elongated, enabling the insect to jump weakly. The coxae are elongate and the tarsi are five-segmented. Very typical of the Mantophasmatodea is a small dorsal projection in the membrane distal to the third tarsomere and a huge arolium that is elevated during walking, hence the order's common name "heelwalkers." The abdomen is 11-segmented. In the male the subgeni-tal plate has a medioventral projection used for drumming, a feature seen in only one other insect order, the Plecoptera. Further, in almost all species the complicated phallic structures are asymmetric, the right phallomere being small and showing great similarity with that of Dictyoptera; only Tanzaniophasma has simple symmetrical genitalia. Above the genitalia there is a sclerotized projection, the vomeroid, which resembles the vomer of Phasmatodea. The female has a well developed but short ovipositor that protrudes beyond the subgenital lobe formed by parts of coxosternum 8. Distinct features of the mantophasmatodean ovipositor are the blunt gonapophyses on segment 8, the short, upcurved gonoplacs, and the gonapophyses of segment 9 fused to the latter. The unseg-mented cerci are prominent (less so in females), clasping (in males) and not articulated with tergum 10.

The internal structure is not well known. The alimentary canal includes a large proven-triculus, very similar to that of Grylloblattodea, and two mesenteric ceca. The heart lacks arteries in the midabdominal region, and a ventral diaphragm is present. Individual segmental ganglia occur in the thorax and abdomen. Females lack the ectodermal accessory glands seen, for example, in Dictyoptera.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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