Adult. The body of adult Odonata is remarkable for its colors, both pigmentary and structural, that frequently form a characteristic pattern over the dorsal region (Figure 6.12A). Most adults range from 30 to 90 mm in length and are sturdy, actively flying insects. The head is freely articulated with the thorax, and a large part of its surface, especially in Anisoptera (dragonflies), is occupied by the well-developed compound eyes. Three ocelli form a triangle on the vertex. The antennae are short, hairlike structures that apparently carry few sense organs. The mouthparts are powerful structures of the biting and chewing type. The thorax is somewhat parallelogram-shaped, with the legs placed anteroventrally and the wings situated posterodorsally. The prothorax is distinct but small, and in female Zygoptera (damselflies) is sculptured so as to articulate with the claspers of the male during mating. The mesothorax and metathorax are large and fused together. The pleura of these segments are very large and possess prominent sulci. The legs are weak and unsuitable for walking. They serve to grasp the prey and hold it to the mouth during feeding. In Zygoptera the fore and hind wings are almost identical; in Anisoptera the hind wing is somewhat broader near the base. A prominent pterostigma (see Figure 3.27) is present on each wing in all except a 137

few species. The wing venation is a primitive netlike arrangement. Ten abdominal segments

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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