Structure

Adult. Adults range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Members of most species are soft-bodied, weakly flying insects whose head carries a pair of well-developed compound eyes, long, multisegmented antennae, and chewing mouthparts. Ocelli are absent except in Osmylidae. In most species the legs are identical, though in Mantispidae and some Berothidae the forelegs are large and raptorial. The four wings are membranous, about equal in size, and generally have a primitive venation. In Coniopterygidae, however, the number of longitudinal and crossveins is much reduced. The abdomen is 10-segmented and lacks cerci.

Internal structure is poorly known. A dorsal crop diverticulum occurs in some groups, and there are six or eight Malpighian tubules. Three thoracic and seven abdominal ganglia are present. Females have polytrophic ovarioles.

Larva and Pupa. Larvae have a prognathous head with suctorial mouthparts. Each mandible is sickle-shaped and grooved on the inner side. The lacinia is closely apposed to

302 the groove, forming a tube up which soluble food can be drawn. The alimentary canal is occluded posterior to the midgut. The Malpighian tubules are secondarily attached at their

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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