The insect circulatory system includes a contractile middorsal vessel, divisible into a posterior heart, equipped with valves (ostia) through which hemolymph enters the vessel, and an anterior aorta that delivers hemolymph to the head region. Only rarely are there arteries for conduction of hemolymph to specific body regions. Muscular diaphragms and, in most species, accessory pulsatile organs assist in directing the hemolymph around the body. The heart may or may not be innervated, but in any event the heartbeat is always myogenic. Control of heartbeat frequency and amplitude is complex and influenced by neuronal and neurohormonal factors. Except in primitive insects where hemolymph flow is

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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