Among the evolutionary trends that may be seen in insect postembryonic development are (1) increasing separation of the processes of growth and accumulation of reserves (functions of the juvenile stage) from reproduction and dispersal, which are functions of the adult stage; (2) the spending of a greater proportion of the insect's life in the juvenile stage; and (3) an increasing degree of difference between larval and adult habits and form. The latter has been accompanied by modification of the final larval instar into a pupa in which the considerable changes from larval to adult form can occur.

Insects may be arranged in three basic groups in terms of the pattern of postembryonic development that they display. Apterygotes are ametabolous; that is, the changes from juvenile to adult form are very slight. Adults continue to molt, and the number of instars is both large and variable. Almost all exopterygotes are hemimetabolous. Juveniles broadly resemble adults and undergo only a partial metamorphosis. The number of instars is generally four or five and constant for a species. The major event in exopterygote metamorphosis is the full development of wings and genitalia. Internal organs grow progressively through larval life. Endopterygotes and a very few exopterygotes are holometabolous. Juveniles and adults are normally strikingly different and major changes (complete metamorphosis)

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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