Systematics And Taxonomy

of the entognathous condition, whereas Kukalova-Peck (1991), putting more emphasis on 101

features of the thorax, suggested that they are true Insecta. Again, the monophyletic nature, or otherwise, of the Paleoptera is controversial. Sharov (1966) and Kukalova-Peck (1985, 1991) argued strongly that Ephemeroptera and Odonata had a common ancestor, whereas Kristensen (1991) lumped the Odonata with the Neoptera, this assemblage thereby becoming the sister group of the Ephemeroptera. The status of the Polyneoptera likewise remains questionable. Some workers believe that this is a monophyletic group, while others insist that the group is polyphyletic, the term "polyneopterous" simply describing a grade of organization. Certainly the position of the Zoraptera is enigmatic, this small order having a mixture of orthopteroid and hemipteroid characters. One recent suggestion is that zorapterans may be the sister group of the Embioptera, itself an order of uncertain affinity showing similarities with Plecoptera, Dermaptera, and Phas-mida! Of all the major groups, the Paraneoptera is the one that is widely accepted to be monophyletic, though there is argument over whether the Psocoptera and Phthiraptera should be linked as a single order (Psocodea) or remain separate. Most modern authors also consider the endopterygote orders (except for the Strepsiptera) to be monophyletic, the two major sister groups being the Coleoptera-neuropteroids and the Hymenoptera-panorpoids. However, members of the small Southern Hemisphere family Nannochoris-tidae are clearly set apart from the other scorpionflies, with which they have been traditionally grouped in the order Mecoptera, and further study may result in the family being placed in its own order (Nannomecoptera) as suggested by Hinton (1981). Likewise, the primitive thysanuran Tricholepidion gertschi is considered by Boudreaux (1979) to be distinct enough to warrant its own order. The system adopted in the present volume is given below:

Superclass Hexapoda.

1. CLASS. Collembola

ORDERS. Arthropleona, Neelipleona, and Symphypleona



4. CLASS. Insecta

I. SUBCLASS. Apterygota

ORDERS. Microcoryphia and Zygentoma

II. SUBCLASS. Pterygota

A. INFRACLASS. Paleoptera ORDERS. Ephemeroptera and Odonata

B. INFRACLASS. Neoptera a. DIVISION. Polyneoptera (orthopteroid orders) ORDERS. Orthoptera, Grylloblattodea, Dermaptera, Plecoptera,

Embioptera. Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Phasmida, Mantophasmatodea, and Zoraptera b. DIVISION. Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders) ORDERS. Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera c. DIVISION. Oligoneoptera (endopterygote orders) ORDERS. Mecoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera. Siphonaptera,

Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, and Hymenoptera

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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