Systematics And Taxonomy

57. False legs (prolegs) numbering five pairs or fewer, located on various 109

abdominal segments, but not on first, second, or seventh; false legs tipped with many minute hooks (hookless prolegs rarely on second and seventh segments) Larvae of most LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

False legs numbering from six to ten pairs, one pair of which occurs on second abdominal segment; prolegs not tipped with minute hooks 58

58. Head with a single ocellus on each side

Larvae of some HYMENOPTERA (Page 330)

Head with several ocelli on each side Larvae of MECOPTERA (Page 239)

59. Body bare or with few scattered hairs, or with waxy coating 60

Body densely covered with hair or scales; proboscis if present coiled under head. Moths LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

60. Last tarsal joint swollen; mouth consisting of a triangular unjointed beak; minute species. Thrips THYSANOPTERA (Page 233)

Tarsi not bladderlike at tip, and with distinct claws 61

61. Prothorax distinct. Bugs HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

Prothorax small, hidden when viewed from above. True flies

DIPTERA (Page 243)

62. Mouthparts mandibulate 63

Mouthparts suctorial, forming a strong pointed inflexed beak Larvae of HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

63. Mandibles exserted straight forward and united with the corresponding maxillae to form piercing j aws Larvae of NEUROPTERA (Page 301)

Mandibles normal, moving laterally to function as biting jaws 64

64. Body not encased in a shell made of sand, pebbles, leaves, etc 65

Case-bearing forms; tracheal gills usually present

Larvae of TRICHOPTERA (Page 268)

65. Abdomen furnished with external lateral gills of respiratory processes (a few Coleoptera and Trichoptera larvae here also) 66

Abdomen without external gills 67

66. Abdomen terminated by two or three long caudal filaments Larvae of EPHEMEROPTERA (Page 127)

Abdomen with short end processes Larvae of MEGALOPTERA (Page 297)

67. Labium strong, extensible, and furnished with a pair of opposable hooks Larvae of ODONATA (Page 136)

Labium not capable of being thrust forward and not hooked 68

68. Abdomen without false legs 69

Abdomen bearing paired false legs on several segments A few larvae of LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

69. The three divisions of thorax loosely united; antennae and caudal filaments long and slender Larvae of PLECOPTERA (Page 147)

Thoracic divisions not constricted; antennae and caudal filaments short (also some aquatic larvae of Diptera and a few Trichoptera here) Larvae of COLEOPTERA (Page 305)

70. Body flattened (or larval maggots) 71

Body strongly compressed; mouth formed as a sharp inflexed beak;

jumping species. Fleas SIPHONAPTERA (Page 264)

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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