Systematics And Taxonomy

Nomenclature). The species-specific part of the name may be a genuine Latin word, as in 93

the dragonfly Hemicordulia flava (from the Latin "flavus" meaning yellow, referring to the extensive yellow coloration on the body), or may be a latinized form of a word, for example, a name of a person or place, as in the damselfly Neostictafraseri, named for the Australian amateur odonatologist, F. C. Fraser. Sometimes, authors show remarkable imagination in naming a species, making study of the derivation of insect names ("entomological etymology"?) a fascinating subject in its own right. Take, for example, the Australian katydid Kawanaphila lexceni Rentz 1993 (in Rentz, 1993), the generic name of which is derived from the aboriginal word "kawana" meaning flower, a reference to the fact that all known species frequent flowers, while the species is named in honor of Ben Lexcen, designer of the Americas Cup challenger Australia II, in which the keel is similar to a structure (the subgenital plate) on the female katydid! Similarly, the damselfly Pseudagrion jedda Watson and Theischinger 1991 (in Watson et al., 1991) receives its name from the 1955 film Jedda, parts of which were shot in Katherine Gorge, Northern Territory, Australia, the type locality (place of collection of the holotype) for the species! In publications, a species' name when first mentioned is given in full, and may be followed by the name of the original describer (authority), which may be abbreviated, and sometimes the year the description was published as in the two preceding examples. In some cases, the name of the authority (and date) appears in parentheses as, for example, in the termite Porotermes adamsoni (Froggatt, 1897), showing that the species was described first under a different genus, subsequently shown to be incorrect. In this example, Froggatt originally placed the species in the genus Calotermes.

As noted above, most species are described on the basis of their structure, especially external characters. However, on occasion such "morphospecies" are not equivalent to biological species (reproductively isolated populations); that is, groups that cannot be differentiated structurally may nevertheless be true biological species and are said to be "sibling species." Such species have been detected by a variety of means, including their different host preferences (e.g., some mosquitoes), mating behavior (courtship songs in some katydids), and cytogenetics (karyotypes of some black flies). The recognition of sibling species and their host specificity are critically important in biological control programs. For example, in the control of prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) by caterpillars of Cactoblastis (see Chapter 24, Section 2.3), it is now believed that the "slow" start made by the insects may have been due to introduction of the "wrong" sibling species which failed to establish themselves, not an unsuitable climate as suggested earlier (McFadyen, 1985).

If a new species is sufficiently different that it cannot be assigned to an existing genus, a new genus is proposed, following the same considerations as for species with respect to name, authority, and date as, for example, Anax Leach 1815, and this species is then denoted as the type species for this genus. Since 1930, it has been a requirement for a type species to be selected for any new genus. For genera described before this time and lacking a type species, the Code specifies how the type species should be determined. Within a genus, especially one with many species, there may be clearly defined groups of species, and each group may be given its own subgeneric name placed parenthetically after the genus; e.g., Aedes (Chaetocruiomyia) spp. for a species group of mosquitoes endemic to Australia. Each taxon above the genus level will also have its authority and date, and for each family (but not for taxa higher than this) there is a type genus, which by definition must have a name that is incorporated into the family name (e.g., Apis in the bee family Apidae).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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