For an excellent introduction to the basics of taxonomy and systematics, readers should taxonomy consult Cranston et al. (1991). The arguments for and against the cladistic, phenetic, and phyletic approaches to classification are discussed by Simpson (1961), Skal and Sneath (1963), Hennig (1965, 1966, 1981), Mayr (1969, 1981), Wagner (1969), Michener (1970), Sneath and Sokal (1973), Ross (1974), and Goto (1982). Boudreaux (1979), Hennig (1981), Kristensen (1981, 1989, 1991), and Kukalova-Peck (1985, 1987, 1991) provide extensive reviews of the phylogeny of insects.

Bishop, A. L., Holtkamp, R. H., Waterhouse, D. B., and Lowes, D., 1989, PESTKEY: An expert system based key for identification of the pests and beneficial arthropods in lucerne, Gen. Appl. Entomol. 21:25-32.

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Boudreaux, H. B., 1979, Arthropod Phylogeny, with Special Reference to 1nsects, Wiley, New York.

Brues, C. T., Melander, A. L., and Carpenter, F. M., 1954, Classification of Insects, 2nd ed., Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA.

Caterino, M. S., Cho, S., and Sperling, F. A. H., 2000, The current state of insect molecular systematics: A thriving Tower of Babel, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 45:1-54.

Comstock, J. H., 1918, The Wings of Insects, Comstock, New York.

Crampton, G. C., 1915, The thoracic sclerites and the systematic position of Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker, a remarkable annectant orthopteroid insect, Entomol. News 26:337-350.

Crampton, G. C., 1920, Some anatomical details of the remarkable winged zorapteran, Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell, with notes on its relationships, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 22:98-106.

Crampton, G. C., 1922, Evidences of relationship indicated by the venation of the fore wings of certain insects with especial reference to the Hemiptera-Homoptera, Psyche 29:23-41.

Crampton, G. C., 1924, The phylogeny and classification of insects, Pomona J. Entomol. Zool. 16:33-47.

Cranston, P. S.,Gullan, P. J., and Taylor, R. W., 1991, Principles and practice of systematics, in: The 1nsects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Danks, H. V., 1988, Systematics in support of entomology, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 33:271-296.

Goto, H. E., 1982, Animal Taxonomy, Arnold, London.

Handlirsch, A., 1903, Zur Phylogenie der Hexapoden, Sitz. Nat. Klasse Acad. Wiss 112:716-738.

Handlirsch, A., 1906-1908, Die fossilen Insecten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen, Engelman, Leipzig.

Handlirsch, A., 1925, Geschichte, Litteratur, Technik, Palaontologie, Phylogenie und Systematik der Insecten, in: Handbuch der Entomologie (C. Schröder, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 1-1201, Fischer, Jena.

Hennig, W., 1965, Phylogenetic systematics, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 10:97-116.

Hennig, W., 1966, Phylogenetic Systematics, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

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Hinton, H. E., 1958, The phylogeny of the panorpoid orders, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 3:181-206.

Hinton, H. E., 1981, Biology of Insect Eggs, 3 volumes, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Kristensen, N. P., 1981, Phylogeny of insect orders, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26:135-157.

Kristensen, N. P., 1989, Insect phylogeny based on morphological evidence, in: The Hierarchy of Life (B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, and H. Jornvall, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Kristensen, N. P., 1991, Phylogeny of extant hexapods, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Kukalova-Peck, J., 1985, Ephemeroid wing venation based upon new gigantic Carboniferous mayflies and basic morphology, phylogeny, and metamorphosis of pterygote insects (Insecta, Ephemerida), Can. J. Zool. 63:933955.

Kukalova-Peck, J., 1987, New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic side lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta), Can J. Zool. 65:2327-2345.

Kukalova-Peck, J., 1991, Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Lawrence, J. F., Hastings, A. M., Dallwitz, M. J., and Paine, T. A., 1993, Beetle Larvae of the World: Interactive Identification and 1nformation Retrieval for Families and Subfamilies. CD-ROM; Version 1.0 for MS-DOS, CSIRO, Melbourne.

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Mayr, E., 1969, Principles of Systematic Zoology, McGraw-Hill, New York.

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McFadyen, R. E., 1985, Larval characteristics of Cactoblastis spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the selection of species for biological control of prickly pears (Opuntia spp.), Bull. Entomol. Res. 75:159-168.

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Sharp, D., 1899, Some points in the classification of the Insecta Hexapoda, Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Zool.,pp. 246-249.

Simpson, G. G., 1961, Principles of Animal Taxonomy, Columbia University Press, New York.

Sneath, P. H. A., and Sokal, R. R., 1973, Numerical Taxonomy—The Principles and Practice of Numerical Classification, Freeman, San Francisco.

Sokal, R. R., and Sneath, P. H. A., 1963, Principles of Numerical Taxonomy, Freeman, San Francisco.

Tillyard, R. J., 1918-1920, The panorpoid complex. A study of the holometabolous insects with special reference to the sub-classes Panorpoidea and Neuropteroidea, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W. 43:265-284, 395-408,626-657; 44:533-718; 45:214-217.

Wagner, W. H., Jr., 1969, The construction of a classification, in: Systematic Biology, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., Publ. No. 1692.

Watson, J. A. L., Theischinger, G., and Abbey, H. M., 1991, The Australian Dragonflies, CSIRO, Melbourne.

Weeks, P. J. D., O'Neill, M. A., Gaston, K. J., and Gauld, I. D., 1999, Automating insect identification: Exploring the limitations of a prototype system, J. Appl. Entomol. 123:1-8.

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Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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