The

PLECOPTEROID, BLATTOID, AND ORTHOPTEROID ORDERS

FIGURE 7.2. Plecoptera. (A) Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) adult; (B) Isoperla confusa (Perlodidae) adult; and (C) I. confusa larva. [A, from A. R. Gaufin, W. E. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R. A. Hayes, 1972, The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 98:1-161. By permission of the American Entomological Society. B, C, from T. H. Frison, 1935, The stoneflies, or Plecoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 20(4). By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Africa. That this is a rather advanced group is suggested by the reduced glossae, reduced first abdominal sternite, the fusion of the first two abdominal ganglia with that of the metathorax, and the absence of abdominal gills in larvae that are generally carnivorous. Containing more than 110 species, the holarctic family Chloroperlidae is considered to be the most specialized of the suborder by virtue of the reduced body size and wing venation (especially the absence of the anal fan in the hind wing) and the complex male reproductive system. Adults are often green (hence the family name); larvae of most species are predators though a few are detritivores or herbivores, they lack gills, and may show adaptations for burrowing in the substrate of the streams and small rivers where they are found.

Taeniopterygidae constitute the most primitive family of Nemouroidea as is indicated by the comparatively rich wing venation, large anal lobe in the hind wing, and five- or six-part cerci. Adults of this holarctic group, comprising about 70 species, are commonly known as winter stoneflies because of their habit of emerging between January and April. Some

FIGURE 7.3. Plecoptera. (A) Capnia nana (Capniidae) adult; (B) Nemouraflexura (Nemouridae) adult; and (C) N.flexura larva. [From A. R. Gaufin, W. E. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R. A. Hayes, 1972, The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 98:1-161. By permission of the American Entomological Society.]

FIGURE 7.3. Plecoptera. (A) Capnia nana (Capniidae) adult; (B) Nemouraflexura (Nemouridae) adult; and (C) N.flexura larva. [From A. R. Gaufin, W. E. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R. A. Hayes, 1972, The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 98:1-161. By permission of the American Entomological Society.]

adults feed on pollen. Larvae, commonly found in large streams and rivers, are herbivores or detritivores. In Capniidae (Figure 7.3A), a holarctic family of about 200 species, adults are generally small, their wings have few cross veins, and the size of the anal fan in the hind wing is reduced. The cerci, however, are long. Like Taeniopterygidae, capniids may emerge during the winter. The generally detritivorous larvae are mostly found in small rivers and streams, though a few species occur in alpine lakes. Leuctridae, which comprise a holarctic family of about 170 species, are recognized by their ability to roll their wings around the abdomen. The small anal area of the hind wings, the undivided cerci, and the specialized male genitalia suggest that this is an advanced family. Typically, the larvae are found in small mountain streams where they feed on detritus. With about 340 species, the holarctic family Nemouridae (Figure 7.3B,C) ranks next to the Perlidae in terms of size. Though the wing venation is primitive, the generally small size of the adults, the highly modified cerci and genitalia of the male, and the nerve cord with only five abdominal ganglia (due to fusion of posterior ones) make this perhaps the most advanced family in this group. Larvae are found in fast-moving streams, often with rocky substrates, where they feed on detritus or, rarely, growing plants and algae. The family Notonemouridae (about 60 species in Madagascar, South Africa, South America, Australia, and New Zealand) is likely a paraphyletic group. Zwick (1981) suggested, on the basis of differences in genitalia and internal structure, that the group arose as a result of several independent invasions from originally Northern Hemisphere stock. Larvae are found in a variety of habitats and are detritivores.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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