The Abdomen

The abdomen differs from the head and thorax in that its segments generally have a rather simple structure, they are usually quite distinct from each other, and most of them lack appendages. The number of abdominal segments varies. The primitive number appears to be 12, though this number is found today in only the Protura. Most insects have 10 or 11 abdominal segments, but several of these are reduced. The reduction occurs primarily at the posterior end, but in some endopterygotes the first segment is reduced and intimately fused with the metathorax. For the purpose of discussion the abdominal segments may be considered to form three groups: pregenital segments, genital segments, and postgenital segments.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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