The Alimentary System

The gut and its associated glands (Figure 16.1) triturate, lubricate, store, digest, and absorb food material and expel the undigested remains. Structural differences throughoutthe system reflect regional specialization for performance of these functions and are correlated also with feeding habits and the nature of normal food material. The structure of the system may vary at different stages of the life history because of the different feeding habits of the larva and adult of a species. The gut normally occurs as a continuous tube between the mouth and anus, and its length is broadly correlated with feeding habits, being short in carnivorous forms where digestion and absorption occur relatively rapidly, and longer (often convoluted) in phytophagous forms. In a few species that feed on fluids, such as larvae of Neuroptera and Hymenoptera-Apocrita, and some adult Heteroptera there is little or no solid waste in the food, and the junction between the midgut and hindgut is occluded.

As Figure 16.1 indicates, food first enters the buccal cavity, which is enclosed by the mouthparts and is not strictly part of the gut. It is into the buccal cavity that the salivary glands release their products. The gut proper comprises three main regions: the foregut, in which the food may be stored, filtered, and partially digested; the midgut, which is the primary site for digestion and absorption of food; and the hindgut, where some absorption and feces formation occur.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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