186 communicates with the exterior by means of two thoracic and eight abdominal pairs of chapter 7 spiracles, is often modified, particularly in migratory forms, through the development of large, segmentally arranged air sacs. These serve to increase the volume of air exchanged during breathing movements (see Chapter 15, Section 3.3). The paired testes of males are typically united in a middorsal position. Accessory glands, often complex, open into the ejaculatory duct. In females the laterally placed ovaries comprise a varied number of panoistic ovarioles that enter the lateral oviducts serially or as a group at the anterior end. A single spermatheca is usual, and accessory glands occur either as anterior extensions of the lateral oviducts (Caelifera) or as tubules opening at the base of the ovipositor (Ensifera).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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