The Hemipteroid Orders

their hypopharynx, presumably an adaptation to prevent desiccation in the dry air among 205

feathers or fur of their host (Rudolph, 1983).

The sucking lice feed exclusively on the blood of the host, always a placental mammal. It has been suggested that a possible reason for the high host specificity of sucking lice is the lethal effect an unsuitable host's blood might have on the symbiotic bacteria present in certain gut cells or in the mycetome, a structure closely associated with the gut (see Chapter 16, Section 5.1.2).

Heavy infestations of lice may render a host more susceptible to disease and cause economic loss related to reduction in quality. In addition, some sucking lice are important disease vectors (see Suborder Anoplura).

In some Anoplura, at least, mating occurs frequently, presumably because females lack a spermatheca. In many species of chewing lice, males are less common than females, and in some species, are rare or unknown so that parthenogenesis occurs. Eggs are usually cemented to hairs or feathers by means of a secretion from the female's accessory gland. Postembryonic development is rapid, juveniles passing through three molts, and adults become sexually mature within a few days of the final molt. Transfer to new hosts is by physical contact and occurs during mating, communal roosting, and brooding and feeding the young. Some bloodsucking Diptera may carry lice from host to host.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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