The Hemipteroid Orders

produce by assisting in pollination and, in predaceous species, killing harmful insects. Most 235

thrips seem to be rather inactive insects, though a number can run rapidly on occasion. Many can fly but only rarely resort to this activity. Many species are readily dispersed on wind currents though, curiously, these are more often wingless rather than winged forms.

Though bisexual, most species probably reproduce by haplodiploid parthenogenesis (see Chapter 20, Section 8.1). Some species apparently are obligate parthenogens, males being rare or unknown, and a few are ovoviviparous or viviparous. The eggs of Terebrantia are somewhat kidney-shaped and laid in plant tissues; those of Tubulifera are oval and simply deposited on the surface of a plant. The postembryonic development of thrips is of interest because it parallels in some respects that found in endopterygote orders. The first two juvenile stages are typically exopterygote in that the insect generally resembles the adult except for the lack of wings and in the possession of fewer antennal segments. However, the remaining instars (two in Terebrantia, three in Tubulifera) are resting stages that do not feed and in which some degree of metamorphosis occurs. The first of these resting stages is called the prepupa (propupa), the remaining one or two, the pupal stage(s). Whether the latter is homologous with the pupa of endopterygotes is open to discussion (see Chapter 2, Section 3.3).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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