The Hemipteroid Orders

FIGURE 8.17. Corixoidea. A water boatman. Sigara atropodonta Vf. ff

(Corixidae).

Infraorder Cimicomorpha

Superfamily Thaumastocoroidea

The 15 species of Thaumastocoroidea are arranged in a single family, THAUMASTO-CORIDAE. Most species of these phytophagous bugs are Australian, though others occur in India, South America, Cuba, and Florida.

Superfamily Tingoidea

About 1800 species of Tingoidea are known, the vast majority of which are included in the family TINGIDAE (lacebugs). Members of this cosmopolitan family are easily recognized by the lacelike pattern on the dorsal surface of the head and body, including the wings (Figure 8.18). They are phytophagous on a wide range of plants and occasionally become pests. A few species are gall formers and some show maternal care of the nymphs.

Superfamily Miroidea

All but about two dozen of the approximately 10,000 species of miroids are included in the worldwide family MIRIDAE (CAPSIDAE). The majority of species are phytophagous, and the group includes some important pest species, for example, Lygus lineolaris, the

FIGURE 8.18. Tingoidea. The sycamore lacebug, Corythuca ciliata (Tingi-dae). [From R. C. Froeschner, 1944, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midi. Nat. 31(3):638-683. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist.]

FIGURE 8.19. Miroidea and Cimicoidea. (A) The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Miridae); (B) the four-lined plant bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Miridae); and (C) the bedbug, Cimex lectularius (Cimicidae). [A, B, from H. H. Knight, 1941, The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22(1):234 pp. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

FIGURE 8.19. Miroidea and Cimicoidea. (A) The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Miridae); (B) the four-lined plant bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Miridae); and (C) the bedbug, Cimex lectularius (Cimicidae). [A, B, from H. H. Knight, 1941, The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22(1):234 pp. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

tarnished plant bug (Figure 8.19A), which feeds on cotton, alfalfa, hay, and various vegetables and fruits. Its relative, Poecilocapsus lineatus, the four-lined plant bug (Figure 8.l9B), feeds on gooseberry, currant, rose, and various annual flowers. Some species feed on fungi while others are omnivorous, sucking both plant and insect fluids (including those of pest species).

Superfamily Cimicoidea

Members of this superfamily of about 1000 species are united by the occurrence of hemocoelic insemination (see Chapter 19, Section 4.3.1), egg fertilization in the vitellarium of the ovary, and pre-ovipositional embryonic development. Most belong to three families, CIMIClDAE, NABlDAE, and ANTHOCORIDAE. Nabidae (300 species worldwide) were formerly included in the Reduvioidea, but the demonstration of hemocoelic insemination in members of one subfamily led to their transfer to this group. Nabids prey actively on other insects. Anthocorids (flower bugs) (500 species) form a widespread group of bugs that feed mostly on the blood or eggs of arthropods, sometimes on pollen, and rarely on the blood of mammals, including humans. They are found on flowers, under bark, or in leaf litter. The Cimicidae is a small (75 species) but widely distributed family of wingless bugs that are bloodsucking ectoparasites of birds and mammals. Included in the family are the bedbugs, Cimex lectularius (Figure 8.19C) (cosmopolitan) and C. hemipterus (mainly southern Asia and Africa). These are particularly common in unhygienic and/or overcrowded conditions. They hide during the day, and also lay their eggs, in crevices, coming out to feed at night. Though bedbugs have been implicated in the transmission of more than 20 diseases, conclusive evidence for this role is lacking.

Superfamily Reduvioidea

Almost all of the more than 5000 described species of Reduvioidea are placed in one family, the REDUVIIDAE, commonly known as assassin bugs (Figure 8.20). All species are predaceous, particularly on other arthropods, though a number feed on the blood of

FIGURE 8.20. Reduvioidea. The bloodsucking conenose, Triatoma sanguisuga (Redu-viidae). [From R. C. Froeschner, 1944, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midi. Nat. 31(3):638-683. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist.]

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