The Hemipteroid Orders

Infraorder Enicocephalomorpha Superfamily Enicocephaloidea

The 260 or so species are usually arranged in a single family, ENICOCEPHALIDAE, which has a predominantly tropical to subtropical distribution. They are small- to medium-sized bugs, typically found among leaf litter, rotting logs, etc., where they prey on other arthropods. Many are brachypterous or apterous, though winged species often appear in large swarms at dusk, hence their common name of gnat bugs.

Infraorder Dipsocoromorpha Superfamily Dipsocoroidea

About three quarters of the approximately 225 species of Dipsocoroidea are included in the cosmopolitan family SCHIZOPTERIDAE. These are minute, predaceous insects found in damp habitats such as moss, leaf litter, and ant nests.

Infraorder Gerromorpha

Some authors include all members of the infraorder in a single superfamily, Gerroidea. Others, including Carver et al. (1991), split the group into the following four superfamilies.

Superfamily Mesovelioidea

The 30 or so species are arranged in a single, widely distributed family, MESOVELI-IDAE. These long-legged, predaceous bugs are usually found at the margins of ponds, crawling among vegetation and debris; sometimes they move over the water surface. A few species occur away from water in damp places, including caves.

Superfamily Hebroidea

Hebroidea are very small, semiaquatic bugs found among moss or on ponds with an abundance of floating or emergent vegetation where they prey on small arthropods. The group has a cosmopolitan distribution and its 150 species are included in a single family, HEBRIDAE.

Superfamily Gerroidea

All but about a dozen of the approximately 1000 species in this superfamily are included in two equally sized families, GERRIDAE and VELIIDAE. Gerridae, commonly known as pond skaters and water striders (Figure 8.14A), are elongate bugs whose body is covered with a dense layer of waterproof hairs. Members of this widespread group are mainly found

FIGURE 8.14. Gerroidea and Hydrometroidea. (A) A pond skater, Gerris marginatus (Gerridae); and (B) a water measurer, Hydrometra martini (Hydrometridae). [A, from R. C. Froeschner, 1962, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 67(1):208-240. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist. B, from A. R. Brooks and L. A. Kelton, 1967, Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Hemiptera), Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 51:92 pp. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada.]

FIGURE 8.14. Gerroidea and Hydrometroidea. (A) A pond skater, Gerris marginatus (Gerridae); and (B) a water measurer, Hydrometra martini (Hydrometridae). [A, from R. C. Froeschner, 1962, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 67(1):208-240. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist. B, from A. R. Brooks and L. A. Kelton, 1967, Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Hemiptera), Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 51:92 pp. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada.]

on freshwater surfaces, moving or still, but a few species are marine. They feed on insects that fall onto the water surface. Veliids (water crickets) are primarily neotropical and oriental in distribution. Like gerrids, they are predaceous and mainly occur on the surface of moving or still fresh water. A few species are marine and others live in moist forest soil or among wet rocks.

Superfamily Hydrometroidea

All but 5 of the approximately 120 species in this group are placed in the mainly tropical family HYDROMETRIDAE (water measurers), though the genus Hydrometra (Figure 8.14B) is cosmopolitan. These slow-moving insects, with a superficial resemblance to stick insects, mostly crawl over floating vegetation or still water, preying on insects and crustaceans; however, a few species are found on the floor of rain forests.

Infraorder Leptopodomorpha Superfamily Leptopodoidea

Most members of this very small group are included in the family LEPTOPODIDAE (30 species). These are primarily found in the Eastern Hemisphere tropics, on vertical rock faces and boulders adjacent to streams where they prey on other arthropods.

Superfamily Saldoidea

Almost all of the 260 species of Saldoidea are included in the cosmopolitan family SALDIDAE (Figure 8.15), commonly called shore bugs because they are found in the intertidal zone, on mud flats, in salt marshes, and other open areas, where they prey or scavenge on other invertebrates. Their long legs facilitate rapid pursuit of potential prey.

FIGURE 8.15. Saldoidea. Teloleucapellucens (Saldidae). [From A. R. Brooks and L. A. Kelton, 1967, Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Hemiptera), Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 51:92 pp. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada.]

Infraorder Nepomorpha

Superfamily Nepoidea

Two small but well-known families of aquatic bugs are included in this group, NEP-IDAE (200 species) and BELOSTOMATIDAE (150 species). Nepidae are called water scorpions because of their posterior respiratory siphon through which gas exchange occurs during periodic visits to the water surface. The family is mainly tropical and subtropical in distribution, though some common genera, for example, Ranatra (Figure 8.16C) and Nepa (Figure 8.16D), are cosmopolitan. Among the Belostomatidae (giant water bugs) are some of the largest Heteroptera, some South American species reaching a length of 11 cm. Letho-cerus (Figure 8.16B) has a worldwide distribution; its species are brown, oval-shaped bugs with raptorial forelegs used to catch prey, both invertebrate and vertebrate. Occasionally, these insects become a nuisance in fish hatcheries.

Superfamily Ochteroidea

The Ochteroidea (Gelastocoroidea) includes two families of small, flattened, "knobbly surfaced" bugs, the OCHTERIDAE (30 species) and GELASTOCORIDAE (150 species). Both families are widespread, and species are mostly found on the shores of lakes and ponds, mud flats, etc., where they feed on other arthropods. Their warty appearance, together with their ability to jump, has given them their common name of toadbugs.

Superfamily Naucoroidea

All 170 species of this widely distributed group of aquatic bugs are placed in the family NAUCORIDAE. These slow-moving insects, which bear some resemblance to belostom-atids, are found among submerged vegetation in moving or still water where they use their raptorial forelegs to capture prey.

Superfamily Notonectoidea

The great majority of the 360 species of Notonectoidea are included in the widespread family NOTONECTIDAE (back swimmers) (Figure 8.16A). As their common name

FIGURE 8.16. Notonectoidea and Nepoidea. (A) A back swimmer, Notonecta undulata (Notonectidae); (B) the giant water bug, Lethocerus americanus (Belostomatidae); (C) a water scorpion, Ranatrafusca (Nepidae); and (D) a water scorpion, Nepa apiculata (Nepidae). [B, C, from A. R. Brooks and L. A. Kelton, 1967, Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Hemiptera) Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 51:92 pp. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada. D, from R. C. Froeschner, 1962, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 67(1):208-240. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist.]

FIGURE 8.16. Notonectoidea and Nepoidea. (A) A back swimmer, Notonecta undulata (Notonectidae); (B) the giant water bug, Lethocerus americanus (Belostomatidae); (C) a water scorpion, Ranatrafusca (Nepidae); and (D) a water scorpion, Nepa apiculata (Nepidae). [B, C, from A. R. Brooks and L. A. Kelton, 1967, Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Hemiptera) Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 51:92 pp. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada. D, from R. C. Froeschner, 1962, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 67(1):208-240. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist.]

indicates, the insects swim with the ventral surface uppermost. The hind legs are long and oarlike, with a fringe of bristles on the posterior margin. Back swimmers, which are predaceous, usually rest on the water surface and, when disturbed, swim actively downward and grasp onto a submerged object. Cosmopolitan genera are Notonecta and Anisops.

Superfamily Corixoidea

The 500 or so species of Corixoidea are placed in a single cosmopolitan family, CORIXIDAE (water boatmen) (Figure 8.17). They are typically microphagous bugs that feed on detritus, algae, etc., which they scoop up with their flattened, hairy fore tarsi. However, some species feed on other aquatic arthropods, using their fore tarsi to locate prey (e.g., chironomid larvae) buried in the substrate. Corixids generally cling onto the substrate or submerged vegetation with their middle legs, surfacing only to renew their air supply. The hind legs are enlarged, flattened, and fringed with hairs for swimming purposes but, in contrast to notonectids, corixids swim with the dorsal surface uppermost.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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