The Hemipteroid Orders

the 14 species of which are parasites of water birds and hawks. The RICINIDAE, containing 65 species in two genera, are found on hummingbirds and several families of passerines. Because of the sister-group relationship of their hosts, the BOOPIIDAE (35 species), found on Australian marsupials, and the TRIMENOPONIDAE (10 species), found on South American marsupials and histricomorph rodents (porcupines, guinea pigs, etc.), were formerly thought to have had a common ancestor. This view no longer appears tenable; rather, the Boopiidae appear to be the sister group of the GYROPIDAE (60 species). This family is endemic to South and Central America, though two species, Gyropus ovalis and Gliricola porcelli, which are found on guinea pigs, have been spread by commerce to other parts of the world. Most species of Gyropidae live on histricomorph rodents.


Characteristics of Ischnocera are exposed, three- to five-segmented filiform antennae; mandibles vertical, maxillary palps absent; and mesothorax and metathorax usually fused.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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