The Hemipteroid Orders

because of the woollike waxy filaments that they produce, are included in this family. Most 219

species undergo host alternation. The ADELGIDAE (CHERMIDAE) are a small family (50 species) whose members are confined to conifers. They feed on needles, twigs, or within galls. Most species alternate hosts, the primary one always being spruce. The PHYLLOX-ERIDAE (70 species) are a small but widely distributed family that includes a number of pests, for example, Viteus (= Phylloxera) vitifolii, the vine or grape phylloxera that devastated European vineyards in the 1870s and 1880s following its accidental introduction on North American vines. In North America winged females of V. vitifolii produce two types of offspring, gallicolae that form leaf galls (Figure 8.9B,C) and radicicolae that live underground feeding on the vine roots. In Europe only radicicolae are produced. Both types of offspring reproduce parthenogenetically throughout the summer. Roots of the natural North American hosts are resistant to attack by V vitifolii whereas those of the European vine are highly susceptible. Successful control of the pest in Europe was thus achieved by growing the European vines on resistant North American rootstock.

Suborder Auchenorrhyncha

The two features that characterize this suborder are the complex tympanal organs and antennae whose flagellum is aristoid (hairlike). The labium originates from the posterior head region, and there is no gula. Except for those of Cicadoidea, the hind legs are spined and modified for jumping.

Infraorder Fulgoromorpha

Superfamily Fulgoroidea

In the large, heterogeneous superfamily Fulgoroidea, whose members are commonly known as plant hoppers, there are more than 10,000 species arranged in some 20 families. Plant hoppers are mainly phloem feeders on higher plants, but a few feed on fungi. The majority of species are 1 cm or less in length, though some tropical forms may reach a length of 5 cm or more. Some of the larger and commonly encountered families are as follows. The CIXIIDAE (Figure 8.10A), with more than 1300 species distributed throughout the world, are regarded as the most primitive fulgoroid family. Little is known of their biology, but the young stages are subterranean and typically feed on grass roots. Larvae of a few species have been encountered in ant nests while others are cave dwellers with reduced eyes. DELPHACIDAE (Figure 8.10B) are small (less than 1 cm in length) fulgoroids that frequently have reduced wings. This is the largest family of fulgoroids, and its more than 1500 species are recognized by the large spur on the tibia of the hind legs. A few members of this family are serious pests by acting as vectors of virus diseases. The DERBIDAE constitute a mainly tropical family, whose more than 800 species typically have very long wings and feed on fungi or higher plants. DICTYOPHARIDAE (Figure 8.10C) are medium-sized Fulgoroidea whose head bears a distinct anterior process. The family, which contains more than 600 species, is widely distributed through arid or semiarid areas of the world. The FULGORIDAE, with about 700 species, are a widely distributed group, many of whose members are known as lantern flies because the inflated anterior part of the head was believed originally to be luminous. The largest plant hoppers are members of this family. The ACHILIDAE form a widely distributed, though primarily tropical family containing about 380 species. Juveniles live beneath bark or in rotting wood. More than 1000 species

FIGURE 8.10. Fulgoroidea. (A) Cixius angustatus (Cixiidae); (B) Stenocranus dorsalis (Delphacidae); (C) Scolopsperdix (Dictyopharidae); (D) Anormenis septentrionalis (Flatidae); and (E) Fitchiella robertsoni (Issidae). [FromH. Osborn, 1938, TheFulgoridaeofOhio, Ohio Biol. Surv. Bull. 6(6):283-349 (Bulletin #35). By permission of the Ohio Biological Survey.]

FIGURE 8.10. Fulgoroidea. (A) Cixius angustatus (Cixiidae); (B) Stenocranus dorsalis (Delphacidae); (C) Scolopsperdix (Dictyopharidae); (D) Anormenis septentrionalis (Flatidae); and (E) Fitchiella robertsoni (Issidae). [FromH. Osborn, 1938, TheFulgoridaeofOhio, Ohio Biol. Surv. Bull. 6(6):283-349 (Bulletin #35). By permission of the Ohio Biological Survey.]

are included in the family FLATIDAE (Figure 8.10D), a highly specialized, mainly tropical, group. Members of this family resemble moths by virtue of their triangular, opaque tegmina, which are folded to form a steep roof over the body. The ISSIDAE (Figure 8.10E) are another large family, with more than 1100 species. Its members are mostly dull colored and frequently have a squat, beetlelike facies.

Infraorder Cicadomorpha Superfamily Cercopoidea

The members of this small, rather homogeneous superfamily are arranged in three families, CERCOPIDAE, APHROPHORIDAE, and MACHAEROTIDAE. Species are seldom more than 15 mm in length and frequently strikingly colored as adults. The larvae of a few Cercopidae are subterranean, but mostly they live either in a mass of froth (Cer-copidae and Aphrophoridae), when they are known as cuckoo-spit insects or spittlebugs, or in a calcareous tube (Machaerotidae). The function of these structures, which are affixed to plant stems, is to provide protection from predators and to prevent desiccation.

FIGURE 8.11. Cercopoidea. A froghopper, Philaenus spumarius (Cer-copidae). [From D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C. A. Triplehorn, 1976. An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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