The Hemipteroid Orders

FIGURE 8.26. Thysanoptera. (A) The pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Thripidae); and (B) Liothrips citricornis (Phlaeothripidae). [A, from P.-P. Grasse (ed.), 1951, Traité de Zoologie, Vol. X. By permission of Masson, Paris. B, from L. J. Stannard, Jr., 1968, The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 29(4):215-552. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

(Figure 8.25B). Phlaeothripids are generally large thrips, occasionally reaching more than 10 mm in length, that exhibit a wide range of life styles. Mound et al. (1980), on the basis of the generally dorsoventrally flattened body, suggested that the early members of the family lived as fungus feeders under bark. Most extant species continue to feed on fungi, including their spores, while others prefer lichens, mosses, flowers, leaves and stems of angiosperms (some causing galls), or small arthropods. Crespi (1992) has shown that some of the gall-forming species have evolved eusociality, the founding female producing both fully winged and short-winged offspring. The latter ("soldiers") have large, armed forelegs with which they defend the colony against would-be invaders, notably other thrips species, but including ants and caterpillars.

Stannard (1968), Lewis (1973), Mound et al. (1980), Ananthakrishnan (1979, 1984, 1993), and authors in Lewis (1997) give good accounts of the biology of thrips. Mound et al. (1980) and Heming (1993) discuss the phylogeny of the order, the former also including a key to the world families. Mound et al. (1976) provide a key to the British species, while the North American and Australian families may be identified from Arnett (2000) and Mound and Heming (1991), respectively.

Ananthakrishnan, T. N., 1979, Biosystematics of Thysanoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24:159-183. Ananthakrishnan, T. N., 1984, Bioecology of Thrips, Indira Publishing House, Oak Park, MI. Ananthakrishnan, T. N., 1993, Bionomics of thrips, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 38:71-92.

Arnett, R. H., Jr., 2000, American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed., CRC

Press, Boca Raton, FL. Crespi, B. J., 1992, Eusociality in Australian gall thrips, Nature 359:724-726.

Heming, B. S., 1978, Structure and function of the mouthparts in larvae of Haplothrips verbasci (Osborn)

(Thysanoptera, Tubulifera, Phlaeothripidae), J. Morphol. 156:1-37. Heming, B. S., 1993, Structure, function, ontogeny, and evolution of feeding in thrips, in: Functional Morphology of Insect Feeding (C. W. Schaefer and R. A. B. Leschen, eds.), Thomas Say Publications in Entomology: Proceedings, Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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