The History of Insect Classification

Wilson and Doner (l937) have fully documented the many schemes that have been devised for the classification of insects, and it is from their account that the following short history is mainly compiled. (Papers marked with an asterisk are cited from Wilson and Doner's review.) Only the major developments (i.e., those that have had a direct bearing on modern schemes) have been included, though it should be realized that a good many more systems have been proposed.

Insect systematics may be considered to have begun with the work of Aristotle, who, according to Kirby and Spence (1815-1826),* included the Entoma as a subdivision of the Anaima (invertebrates). Within the Entoma Aristotle placed the Arthropoda (excluding Crustacea), Echinodermata, and Annelida. Authors who have examined Aristotle's writings differ in their conclusions regarding this author's classification of the insects, but it does appear clear that Aristotle realized that there were both winged and wingless insects and that they had two basic types of mouthparts, namely, chewing and sucking.

Amazingly, it was not for almost another 2000 years that further serious attempts to classify insects were made. Aldrovanus (1602)* divided the so-called "insects" into terrestrial and aquatic forms and subdivided these according to the number of legs they possessed and on the presence or absence and the nature of the wings. In Aldrovanus' classification the term "insect" encompassed other arthropods, annelids, and some mollusks. The work of Swammerdam (1669)* is of particular interest because it represents the first attempt

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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