The Integument

Deposition of the wax layer of the epicuticle begins some time prior to ecdysis. For 363

example, in Blattella germanica oenocytes associated especially with the integument of abdominal sternites 3-6 become major producers of hydrocarbons early in the molt cycle. The hydrocarbons are stored in fat body, then transported to the epidermis bound to lipophorin a few days before molting occurs (Schal et al., 1998; Young et al., 1999). The wax is secreted by the epidermal cells, probably as lipid-water liquid crystals, and passes along the pore canals to the outside. Wax production continues after ecdysis and, in some insects, throughout the entire intermolt period and in the adult stage.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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