(non-jumping) hindlegs, and vestigial ovipositor. However, most species are fully winged and can fly strongly. Most species are omnivorous, and sometimes cause significant damage to field crops, other cultivated plants, and turf. Others feed on soil insects.

Suborder Caelifera

In members of the suborder Caelifera, the antennae are comparatively short with, in most species, less than 30 segments. Tympanal organs, when present, are on the first abdominal segment. The six superfamilies that comprise this group are the Tridactyloidea, Tetrigoidea, Eumastacoidea, Pyrgomorphoidea, Pneumoroidea, and Acridoidea.

Superfamily Tridactyloidea

Members of this superfamily were originally thought to be Ensifera, closely related to Gryllotalpidae, on account of the remarkable similarity in body and leg structure between the two groups. Included in the superfamily are two small families TRIDACTYLIDAE (pygmy mole crickets) (130 species) and CYLINDRACHETIDAE (sand gropers) (16 species). Tridactylids are semiaquatic, living in damp or wet sand adjacent to streams and lakes. They are reported to feed on algae. Sand gropers also live in burrows in soil where they feed on roots and perhaps other arthropods.

Superfamily Tetrigoidea

More than 1000 species are included in the superfamily Tetrigoidea. All are placed in a single family, TETRIGIDAE (Figure 7.22). They are commonly known as grouse locusts or pygmy grasshoppers. These grayish, often cryptically patterned insects are distinguished by an enormously enlarged pronotum that projects posteriorly to cover most of the abdomen, two-segmented tarsi, and, in most species, short antennae with 12 or fewer segments. In many species the wings (especially the tegmina) are reduced. Auditory and stridulatory structures are absent. The grouse locusts are most common in warmer areas of the world, though many species are found in temperate regions, where they overwinter in the adult stage. They prefer rather moist habitats and some species are semiaquatic, swimming freely

FIGURE 7.22. A grouse locust, Tetrix subulata (Tetrigidae). [From J. A. G. Rehn and H. J. Grant, Jr., 1961, A Monograph of the Orthoptera of North America (North of Mexico), Vol. I. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. By permission of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.]

FIGURE 7.23. A monkey grasshopper, Biroella sp. (Eumastacidae). [FromD. C. F. Rentz, 1991,Orthoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press. By permission of the Division of Entomology, CSIRO.]

and able to remain submerged for some time. They feed on algae, moss, or mud from which they extract the organic matter.

Superfamily Eumastacoidea

Most of the more than 1100 species of Eumastacoidea are placed in the family EUMASTACIDAE (Figure 7.23), commonly known as monkey grasshoppers because of the supposed monkeylike appearance of their faces. The majority of species occur in tropical rainforests. Many are metallic or iridescent in color though some mimic leaves or twigs. The antennae are very short, wings may be present or absent, and the hindlegs are splayed out to the side when the insect is resting. Eumastacids are phytophagous and may be diurnally or nocturnally active. The remaining 130 species in this superfamily belong to the South American family PROSCOPIIDAE (stick grasshoppers), most of which are elongate, twiglike forms. They are wingless, lackjumping hindlegs, and have tiny antennae. They are found in a range of habitats, including tropical rainforests, lowland deserts, and mountainous regions.

Superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea

The single family (PYRGOMORPHIDAE) that makes up this group includes about 530 species with a worldwide distribution. The family includes some of the smallest and some of the largest grasshoppers. Generally, they can be easily distinguished from acridoids by their conical heads. Many are aposematically colored, reflecting their poisonous nature. Some exude irritant fluids or froth as a means of discouraging predators. In contrast to acridoids, pyrgomorphs tend to be sluggish and prefer to crawl rather than jump.

Superfamily Pneumoroidea

The approximately 20 species in this group, found in South and East Africa, are included in the PNEUMORIDAE. They appear to be among the most primitive living Caelifera. They are commonly known as bladder grasshoppers as males of some species can inflate their abdomen, which then serves as a sound amplifier during stridulation. Such males are fully winged and strong fliers. Non-inflating males and females are brachypterous or micropterous. Typically, individuals are cryptically colored, closely resembling their food plant.

Superfamily Acridoidea

The Acridoidea (short-horned grasshoppers and locusts) is the largest orthopteran su-perfamily with about 8000 described species, most of them in the family ACRIDIDAE (Figure 7.24). Although most species are found in warmer areas of the world, a large number occur in temperate climates, where usually they overwinter in the egg stage. Most acridoids inhabit grassland and other low vegetation, but a number live in trees. They are predominantly diurnally active insects. They are virtually exclusively phytophagous, eating mainly living plants. Most species are winged and some are strong fliers. There are several important subfamilies of Acrididae. The CYRTACANTHACRIDINAE are a subfamily of rather large forms confined mainly to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The subfamily contains a number of economically very important species, including several locusts, for

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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