The

PLECOPTEROID, BLATTOID, AND ORTHOPTEROID ORDERS

FIGURE 7.17. A proposed phylogeny of Orthoptera.

Superfamily Gryllacridoidea

The superfamily Gryllacridoidea is a primitive superfamily that contains nearly 1500 species. Its members are usually somewhat cricketlike in appearance, with longish cerci. However, they may be distinguished from true crickets because males lack a stridulatory mirror on the tegmen, and females have a laterally compressed, not needlelike, ovipositor. They may be winged, brachypterous, or apterous and may or may not have tympana on the fore tibiae. They are secretive, nocturnal creatures. The superfamily, which is mainly restricted to tropical or subtropical regions or to temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere, includes three families: RHAPHIDOPHORIDAE, STENOPELMATIDAE, and GRYLLACRIDIDAE. The Rhaphidophoridae (cave or camel crickets) includes about 300 species of wingless, often darkly colored, humpbacked insects that live in caves, hollow logs, under stones, and in other humid situations; the genus Ceuthophilus (Figure 7.18A) is well known in the basements of North American houses, and Tachycines asynamorus is an oriental species commonly found in greenhouses. The 190 species of Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem crickets, stone crickets, true wetas, and king crickets) are winged or apterous, large, omnivorous or carnivorous insects, found under stones, in rotting logs, etc. Some are subterranean and may have vestigial eyes and antennae, and enlarged forelegs. Deinacrida heteracantha, from New Zealand, may be the world's heaviest insect, gravid females weighing up to 70 g. The leaf-rolling crickets (Gryllacrididae) (Figure 7.18B) are so-called because many build shelters by rolling up a leaf and tying it with a silklike secretion of the salivary glands. Other members of this large family (600 species), from arid regions, live by day in burrows lined with silk and having a trap door so as to avoid desiccation. Species may be omnivorous, predaceous on other arthropods, or specialized herbivores feeding on grass seeds.

FIGURE 7.18. Gryllacridoidea. (A) A camel cricket, Ceuthophilus maculatus; and (B) a leaf roller, Camptonotus carolinensis, [A, from M. Hebard, 1934, The Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 20(3). By permission of the Illinoispt Naturalpt History Survey. B, from W. S. Blatchley, 1920, Orthoptera of Northeastern America with Especial Reference to the Faunas of Indiana and Florida, The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana.]

FIGURE 7.18. Gryllacridoidea. (A) A camel cricket, Ceuthophilus maculatus; and (B) a leaf roller, Camptonotus carolinensis, [A, from M. Hebard, 1934, The Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 20(3). By permission of the Illinoispt Naturalpt History Survey. B, from W. S. Blatchley, 1920, Orthoptera of Northeastern America with Especial Reference to the Faunas of Indiana and Florida, The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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