The Panorpoid Orders

Infraorder Dacnonypha

A single superfamily, Eriocranioidea, containing three very small families, is included in this group. The ERIOCRANIIDAE (20 holarctic species) are diurnal, iridescent moths with a short proboscis. They appear to feed on sap exudates. Larvae are leaf miners in chestnut, oak, birch, and hazel. Pupation takes place in a cocoon buried in soil.

Among the features that characterize members of this suborder are: adults (after eclosion) with non-functional (often reduced) mandibles, maxilla without a sclerotized lacinia, galeae forming a proboscis; larvae with a spinneret. The suborder is split into four very small infraorders, Dacnonypha, Neopseustina, Lophocoronina, and Exoporia, and one extremely large infraorder, Heteroneura, included in which is the series Ditrysia to which about 98% of Lepidoptera belong. In Dacnonypha the proboscis is non-muscular; in the remaining groups (except Lophocoronina where proboscis muscles are absent), sometimes known as Myoglossata, the proboscis has an intrinsic musculature.

Infraorder Neopseustina

The approximately one dozen species in this infraorder are included in the single superfamily Neopseustoidea and family NEOPSEUSTIDAE. These mostly nocturnal moths, found in Southeast Asia and South America, have a short proboscis, though their feeding habits are unknown. The larvae have yet to be discovered.

Infraorder Lophocoronina

This group contains six species of Lophocorona, endemic to southern Australia, in the family LOPHOCORONIDAE (superfamily Lophocoronoidea). These very small, nocturnal caddisflylike moths occur in dry eucalypt forest or scrub. Their larvae are unknown but the piercing ovipositor of the female suggests that they may be borers or leaf miners.

Infraorder Exoporia

Included in this group are two superfamilies, Mnesarchaeoidea (with one family MNE-SARCHAEIDAE, endemic to New Zealand) and Hepialoidea (almost all of the 500 species of which belong to the family HEPIALIDAE). Mnesarchaeids are small, diurnal moths with a well-developed proboscis, though they are not apparently associated with flowers. The ground-dwelling larvae were discovered only in the late 1970s. Hepialidae (swift or ghost moths) are small to large, diurnal, crepuscular, or nocturnal moths whose proboscis is short or absent. The family is cosmopolitan, though about one-quarter of the species occur in Australia. Larvae live in vertical tunnels excavated either in wood, feeding on regrowth bark at the entrance, or in soil where they feed on roots or emerge to eat low-growing foliage or leaf litter. Some are important grassland pests.

Infraorder Heteroneura

This group includes the so-called "Monotrysia" (comprising the first four superfam-ilies outlined below) and the Ditrysia, subdivided into about 30 superfamilies. The term

282 Monotrysia was earlier used to define a suborder of Lepidoptera whose females are char acterized by their single genital opening. It is now realized that this group is paraphyletic.

Superfamily Nepticuloidea

Also called Stigmelloidea, this superfamily includes the NEPTICULIDAE (STIGMELLIDAE) (400 species worldwide) and the OPOSTEGIDAE (50 species, mostly in tropical Asia and Australia). In the Nepticulidae are the smallest Lepidoptera. Larvae of both families are apodous miners in leaves, stems, bark, and seeds, or rarely gall formers.

Superfamily Incurvarioidea

Members of this group are split into as many as six, mostly quite small families. The IN-CURVARIIDAE (300 species worldwide) are small to minute, mostly diurnal moths whose larvae are leaf miners, stem borers, or case makers. HELIOZELIDAE (100 species) are small to very small, sometimes metallic-colored moths. Larvae mine in leaves and petioles of shrubs and trees, occasionally reaching pest proportions. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution.

Superfamily Tischerioidea

All members of this small monogeneric (Tischeria) group are included in the TIS-CHERIIDAE, a mostly North American family, but extending into Europe, Asia, and Africa. Larvae of these very small or minute moths are leaf miners.

Superfamily Palaephatoidea

The approximately 60 species in this group, all in the family PALAEPHATIDAE, are split more or less evenly between South America and Australia. Some species in this group of small to very small moths are sexually dimorphic. Larvae are initially leaf miners but later live in shelters formed by tying together leaves.

Series Ditrysia

All of the remaining moths and the butterflies are included in this huge but clearly monophyletic group, whose members are characterized by the separate copulatory and egg-laying openings of the female. Other possible autapomorphies are the complex musculature of the proboscis, the presence of abdominal sex-pheromone glands, and unique spermatozoa. The proposed relationships of the almost 30 superfamilies that make up the Ditrysia are shown in Figure 9.25B.

Superfamily Tineoidea

The Tineoidea are the most primitive of the tineoid group of superfamilies. Though authors split the group into as many as 10 families, the great majority of the more than 10,000 species belong to the TINEIDAE, PSYCHIDAE, and GRACILLARIIDAE. Tineoid moths are small- to medium-sized and most have narrow wings bordered with long hairs. Larvae are concealed feeders that live in portable cases, silken tubes, or mines within the food. The Psychidae (Figure 9.26A, B), a worldwide group of 6000 species, are commonly known as bagworm moths because of the portable case composed of silk and vegetable

FIGURE 9.26. Tineoidea. (A) Male bagworm moth, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Psychidae); (B) T. ephemeraeformis larva with bag; (C) the case-making clothes moth, Tinea pellionella (Tineidae); and (D) T. pelIionella larva in case. [A, C, D, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc.]

FIGURE 9.26. Tineoidea. (A) Male bagworm moth, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Psychidae); (B) T. ephemeraeformis larva with bag; (C) the case-making clothes moth, Tinea pellionella (Tineidae); and (D) T. pelIionella larva in case. [A, C, D, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc.]

matter that a larva inhabits. Pupation occurs in the case. Females of many species are wingless and apodous; they do not leave the case but lay eggs directly in it. The cosmopolitan Tineidae (3000 species) includes the clothes moths Tineola biselliella and Tinea pellionella (Figure 9.26C,D), a case-bearing species, and the carpet moth Trichophaga tapetzella. Larvae of this family may or may not live in a portable case and feed usually on dried vegetable or animal matter. Gracillariidae (1000 species) form a cosmopolitan family of small moths recognized by their narrow, fringed wings. The larvae, which are leaf miners, undergo hypermetamorphosis. When young they are flattened and have bladelike mandibles, used to lacerate the cells on whose sap they feed. Later they metamorphose, develop normal mouthparts, and feed in the typical manner on parenchyma.

Superfamily Yponomeutoidea

The constituent families of this group were previously considered as part of the Tineoidea. There are two common families. LYONETIIDAE (300 species) are small to minute moths with narrow wings; their larvae are miners in leaves, stems, or bark, or web builders. YPONOMEUTIDAE (including the PLUTELLINAE which are often given family

status) form a cosmopolitan group of about 1000 species of small to very small moths whose larvae are miners, web builders, or exposed feeders. Some species are widespread pests, for example, the diamondback moths, of which Plutella xylostella (Figure 9.27) is probably the best known for its damage to cruciferous crops.

Superfamily Gelechioidea

This large group, containing more than 13,000 described species, is subdivided into 17 families by Nielsen and Common (1991). The great majority of species are contained in four families. The OECOPHORIDAE (mallee moths) (including the Xylorictidae and Stenomatidae of other authors) contains some 7000 species, about 80% of which are Australian. Larvae of most species are external feeders on decaying organic matter, fungi, or the leaves, flowers, or seeds of angiosperms; for protection, they build portable cases of leaf fragments, spin shelters among leaves, or live in silken tubes. By feeding on leaf litter, many Australian species p1ay a key role in energy transfer through the eucalypt ecosystem. Larvae of a few species are stem miners, or prey on soft-bodied arthropods. Though most species are small, the family includes the largest gelechioids with wingspans up to 7.5 cm. The GELECHIIDAE form a widely distributed family containing about 4000 species of small to very small moths. Their larvae show diverse habits; many are leaf folders, but others are leaf miners or borers into stems, seeds, fruit, flowers, or tubers. The family includes some cosmopolitan pests; for example, Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm) damages cotton, Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) causes much damage to stored grains, and Phthorimaea operculella (potato moth) attacks potato and tobacco plants. COSMOPTE-RIGIDAE (1200 species worldwide) are miners, web builders, leaf tiers, case makers, or gall formers on stems and roots. Most of the 500 species of COLEOPHORIDAE have a holarctic distribution. Larvae of these small to very small gelechioids are almost always case bearers that feed on a variety of plants, occasionally becoming pests.

Superfamily Cossoidea

Cossoidea, which form one of the most primitive ditrysian superfamilies, show affinities with the Tortricoidea and have often been included in this group. About 90% of the 1100 species belong to the widely distributed family COSSIDAE, whose members are commonly known as goat, carpenter, or leopard moths (Figure 9.28). They are small to large, swiftly

FIGURE 9.28. Cossoidea. The leopard moth, Zeuzerapyrina (Cossidae). (A) Female; and (B) larva in burrow. [After L. O. Howard and F. H. Chittenden, 1916, The leopard moth: A dangerous imported insect enemy of shade trees, U.S. Dept. Agr. Farm. Bull. 708:12 pp.]
Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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