The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

FIGURE 10.27. Cynipoidea. A gall wasp, Diplolepis rosae (Cynipidae). [From D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C. A. Triplehorn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning.]

is chosen. In some species the life history is complex with two generations per year. The first generation comprises entirely females that reproduce parthenogenetically. The second generation, which develops in a different gall on a different plant, includes both males and females. The 800 or so species of the predominantly tropical family EUCOILIDAE (sometimes considered a subfamily of Cynipidae) are internal parasitoids of fly larvae, especially those associated with dung and rotting fruit.

Superfamily Chalcidoidea

This is a highly diverse group of mostly small to minute, parasitoid or phytophagous (usually gall-forming) insects, most of which are arranged in a number of large and important families. Several of these include species that have been used successfully as biological control agents against insect pests (for examples, see Table 24.6). The family AGAONIDAE (fig insects) contains perhaps 650 species of chalcidoids, which show some remarkable biological features. The species are restricted to living in the receptacles of species or varieties of fig, whose flowers a female pollinates in her search for an oviposition site. The Smyrna fig, a cultivated variety, requires cross-pollination with the wild fig before fruit can be formed. To facilitate this, fig growers place branches of the wild fig, from whose receptacle female fig wasps emerge, among those of the Smyrna fig. As a female searches for a suitable egg-laying site, she accidentally visits the Smyrna fig flowers, though, because they are the wrong shape, she does not oviposit in them. The TORYMIDAE (1150 species widely distributed) exhibit a wide range of life histories. Most species are parasitoids of gall-forming insects, though a few are themselves gall formers or inquilines of galls. Some are parasitoids of mantid oothecae, others develop in bee or wasp nests, and a few feed on seeds. The CHALCIDIDAE, a widespread group of about 1900 species, are parasitoids of lepidopteran, dipteran, and coleopteran larvae or pupae, or hyperparasites of tachinids or ichneumon flies. The EURYTOMIDAE (Figure 10.28A) constitute a cosmopolitan family (1400 species) of very diverse habits. Commonly its members produce galls on the stems of grasses, including cereals. Other species feed on seeds, are inquilines in the nests ofbees and wasps, are parasitoids on gall-forming insects, or egg parasites of Orthoptera. Another very large family is the EULOPHIDAE (3900 species) (Figure 10.28B), a group whose members are very small parasitoids or hyperparasites. The parasitoids are important control agents of many insect pests, especially leaf-mining species of Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hy-menoptera, and Coleoptera, but including scale insects, aphids, and some surface feeders. The TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE (675 species worldwide) (Figure 10.28C) are minute egg

FIGURE 10.28. Chalcidoidea. (A) The wheat jointworm, Harmolita (= Tetramesa) tritici (Eurytomidae); (B) Aphelinus mali (Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum); and (C) ovipositing Trichogramma minutum (Trichogrammatidae), a parasitoid of the eggs of more than 200 species of Lepidoptera. [From L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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