The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

FIGURE 10.32. Vespoidea. Castes of Pheidole instabilis (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). (A) Soldier; (B-E) intermediate workers; (F) typical worker; (G) male; and (H) dealated female. [From W. M. Wheeler, 1910, Ants. Their Structure, Development and Behaviour, Columbia University Press.]

live quite amicably in close proximity. From this it is only a short step to social parasitism in which the workers of one species adopt a queen of another species. They tend the eggs laid by her and feed the larvae that develop. The host queen is killed, and eventually the nest is taken over entirely by the intruders. A relationship of a different form is shown by the slave-making ants, which capture workers of another species; these then perform domestic duties within the colony.

FIGURE 10.33. Vespoidea. Replete of the honey ant, Myrmecocystus hortideo-rum (Formicidae: Formicinae). [From W.M.Wheeler, 1910, Ants. Their Structure, Development and Behaviour, Columbia University Press.]

FIGURE 10.34. Vespoidea. (A) A potter wasp, Eumenes fraterna (Vespidae); and (B-D) a hornet, Vespula pennsylvanica (Vespidae) queen, male, and worker. [A, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B-D, from E. O. Essig, 1954, Insects of Western North America. Reprinted with permission of the Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Copyright 1926 by Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., renewed 1954 by E. O. Essig.]

FIGURE 10.34. Vespoidea. (A) A potter wasp, Eumenes fraterna (Vespidae); and (B-D) a hornet, Vespula pennsylvanica (Vespidae) queen, male, and worker. [A, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B-D, from E. O. Essig, 1954, Insects of Western North America. Reprinted with permission of the Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Copyright 1926 by Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., renewed 1954 by E. O. Essig.]

With about 4000 species, the cosmopolitan (but predominantly tropical) family VESPIDAE includes the true wasps. Both solitary and social forms occur, and in both the larvae are typically reared in specially constructed cells and fed animal material. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew, or ripe fruit. In some species, larvae are also fed on pollen and nectar. Most of the solitary forms can be arranged in two subfamilies, MASARINAE and EUMENINAE. The former is a small group of highly specialized wasps that burrow in soil or build exposed mud cells and feed their larvae on pollen and nectar. The eumenines vary in their nest-building habits. Many construct cells in wood or stems; others, the common mason or potter wasps (Figure 10.34A), build cells of mud fastened to twigs and other objects. Once a cell is provisioned (usually with larvae of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, or Symphyta) and an egg layed, the entrance is sealed. A few eumenines are subsocial, that is, the female interacts with the larva by continuing to feed it through development.

Most of the social wasps belong to the subfamilies POLISTINAE (paper wasps) and VESPINAE (yellow jackets and hornets) (Figure 10.34B-D), the former especially diverse in the Neotropics, the latter in the holarctic and oriental regions. The polistines build annual or perennial nests of paper (masticated wood fragments mixed with saliva), usually comprising a single comb. Larvae are progressively fed with masticated insects, especially caterpillars, and sometimes honey. A colony may be founded by several females, though eventually only one of these becomes the queen, that is, the egg layer, the remaining females, although fertile, becoming workers. In Vespinae a single queen founds a colony, and

FIGURE 10.35. Apoidea. The black and yellow mud dauber, Sceliphron caementarium (Sphecidae). [From L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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