The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

FIGURE 10.3. Mantispoidea. Mantispacincticornis (Man-tispidae). [From D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong. and C. A. Triple-horn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning.]

Chrysopidae are inactive. The Chrysopidae (Figure 10.4) are familiar insects, often found in long grass, though many species occur in shrubs and trees. Another common name for adult Chrysopidae is "stinkflies" because of their ability to produce a disagreeable odor when caught. Like hemerobiids, chrysopids have good potential as biological control agents; Chrysopa carnea is mass-reared in North America for augmentation of natural predator populations and in Europe for control of greenhouse pests.

Superfamily Myrmeleontoidea

Included in this group is the largest neuropteran family, the MYRMELEONTIDAE (2000 species) (Figure 10.5), a cosmopolitan group but especially common in drier regions where the soil is sandy or friable, notably the eastern Mediterranean, Asia, southern Africa, Australia, and the southern United States. Adults are typically crepuscular or nocturnal,

FIGURE 10.5. Myrmeleontoidea. (A) Adult antlion, Dendroleon obsoletum (Myrmeleontidae); and (B) Myrmeleon sp. (Myrmeleontidae) larva [A, from D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C. A. Triplehorn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. B, from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae of Insects. By permission of Mrs. Helen Peterson.]

FIGURE 10.5. Myrmeleontoidea. (A) Adult antlion, Dendroleon obsoletum (Myrmeleontidae); and (B) Myrmeleon sp. (Myrmeleontidae) larva [A, from D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C. A. Triplehorn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. B, from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae of Insects. By permission of Mrs. Helen Peterson.]

though there are some brightly colored diurnal species that broadly resemble damselflies. Larvae, commonly called "antlions," generally remain concealed under stones or debris, or cover themselves with particles of sand, lichen, etc., and await their prey (passing insects). Others lack such camouflage and simply hide in crevices or beneath the soil surface, actively pursuing prey that comes into the vicinity. Larvae of a few species construct pits, at the bottom of which they conceal themselves and wait for prey to fall in. The closely related ASCALAPHIDAE (350 species) is another widely distributed group whose members prefer savannah-type ecosystems. Adults of many species are broadly similar to dragonflies both in appearance and in habits; they are brightly colored, with large eyes and strong mouthparts, and catch their prey on the wing. Others are more like butterflies with broad wings and clubbed antennae. Larvae are much like antlions in their habits and form. NEMOPTERIDAE (140 species) are also associated with arid or semiarid areas of the world, except North America. Adults, which are characterized by their elongate, often filiform, hind wings, are typically nocturnal and feed on other insects and pollen. Larvae of many species are long-necked, occurring in caves, among rocks, etc., where they prey on other arthropods. Others are more like antlions, living beneath the ground surface in wait of prey.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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