FIGURE 7.1. Proposed phylogeny of the Plecoptera. [Modified from P. Zwick, 1980, Plecoptera (Sternfliegen), in: Handbuch der Zoologie, Vol. IV, Insecta Lfg. 26:1-115. By permission of Walter de Gruyter and Co.]

PERLIDAE, and CHLOROPERLIDAE) and Pteronarcyoidea (families PTERONARCYI-DAE and PELTOPERLIDAE). Included in the Euholognatha is a single superfamily Nemouroidea (families TAENIOPTERYGIDAE, NOTONEMOURIDAE, NEMOURI-DAE, CAPNIIDAE, and LEUCTRIDAE) and the very small family SCOPURIDAE. The Scopuridae forms the sister group to the nemuroids.

The Pteronarcyidae (Figure 7.2A) is a small, primitive family whose members include the largest stoneflies and have wings with numerous crossveins. It is primarily a North American group that has invaded eastern Asia in relatively recent times. The herbivorous or detritivorous larvae are found in medium- to large-sized rivers. Another small family, the Peltoperlidae, has a similar distribution to the Pteronarcyidae, and the larvae, which are somewhat cockroachlike in appearance, also feed on plant material or detritus. The Perlodidae (Figure 7.2B,C) is a large holarctic group (>200 species) of medium-sized stoneflies whose larvae are carnivorous, lack gills, and are typically found in slowly flowing rivers. The Perlidae is the largest family in the order with some 350 species. Though primarily a holarctic-oriental group, the family has representatives in South America and

FIGURE 7.2. Plecoptera. (A) Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) adult; (B) Isoperla confusa (Perlodidae) adult; and (C) I. confusa larva. [A, from A. R. Gaufin, W. E. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R. A. Hayes, 1972, The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 98:1-161. By permission of the American Entomological Society. B, C, from T. H. Frison, 1935, The stoneflies, or Plecoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 20(4). By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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