Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.20. Siphonaptera. (A) The human flea, Pulex irritans (Pulicidae); (B) the female chigoe flea, Tunga penetrans (Tungidae); (C) the sand-martin flea, Ceratophyllus styx (Ceratophyllidae); and (D) larva of Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Pulicidae). [A, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B-D, from R. R. Askew, 1971, Parasitic Insects. By permission of Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.]

Superfamily Ceratophylloidea

In Holland's (1964) scheme this very large group includes 12 families, the largest of which are mentioned below. More recent classifications break the ceratophylloids into two or three distinct superfamilies. The HYSTRICHOPSYLLIDAE (CTENOPHTHALMIDAE) constitute the largest family of fleas with about 620 species. Representatives occur throughout the world, though the group is mainly a holarctic one. Most species are parasites of rodents and shrews, though a few are found on carnivores and marsupials. Another large group of about 460 species is the CERATOPHYLLIDAE (Figure 9.20C), which includes several cosmopolitan species. Ceratophyllids are found mainly on rodents, though some occur on birds. Several species are believed to be capable of transmitting plague from rodents to humans, and others can serve as the intermediate host for the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Related to the previous family are the LEPTOPSYLLIDAE, a family of about 240 species found usually on small rodents, but also known from rabbits and lynx in North America. The ISCHNOPSYLLIDAE (about 120 species) are restricted to bats, especially insectivorous forms. The PYGIOPSYLLIDAE, a group of about 160 species, has representatives in Australasia, Southeast Asia, and South America parasitic on a wide range of monotremes, marsupials, rodents, and passerine and sea birds.

Holland (1964, 1985), Askew (1971), Rothschild (1975), Traub and Starcke (1980), Marshall (1981), and Traub (1985) include a good deal of general information on fleas, especially concerning host-parasite relationships. The phylogeny of fleas is discussed by Hennig

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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