Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.15. Tephritoidea. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

Superfamily Diopsoidea

Diopsoidea (Tanypezoidea) make up another small superfamily whose members mostly fall into the PSILIDAE (200 mostly holarctic species) and DIOPSIDAE (150 mostly tropical species). Psilid larvae feed on roots and stems and a few are pests, for example, Psila rosae (carrot rust fly), on carrots, celery, and other root crops. Adult diopsids are called stalk-eyed flies because of the lateral extensions of the head which bear the compound eyes; their larvae are saprophagous or phytophagous (especially on Graminae), the latter occasionally becoming minor pests.

Superfamily Sciomyzoidea

Most members of this small superfamily belong to the cosmopolitan families SCIOMYZIDAE (550 species) or SEPSIDAE (240 species). Sciomyzid larvae feed on terrestrial or aquatic Mollusca, alive or dead, or on their eggs and embryos. Larvae of Sep-sidae scavenge in dung, including sewage sludge, or in decaying plant or animal material.

Superfamily Lauxanioidea

Lauxanioids were formerly included in the previous superfamily. The great majority of species belong to the LAUXANIIDAE (1200 mainly tropical species), adults of which are sedentary and collect on low-growing vegetation, especially adjacent to water. Larvae are saprophagous, occurring in decaying vegetation, leaf litter, and bird nests.

Superfamily Opomyzoidea

This is possibly a polyphyletic group that, as constituted by McAlpine et al. (19811989), includes about a dozen families. Other authorities separate the families into three superfamilies, Opomyzoidea sensu stricto, Agromyzoidea, and Asteioidea. Most of the families are very small and have a restricted distribution. Adult CLUSIIDAE (220 species worldwide) occur around rotting logs and feed on nectar, exudates of rotting material, etc. Their larvae are found in rotting wood, and in the tunnels of termites and bark beetles. Some 1800 species of AGROMYZIDAE are known, including pests of shade trees, vegetables, and flowers. Larvae of this cosmopolitan family are mostly leaf or stem miners; some feed in seeds, bore in wood, or are gall formers. ASTEIIDAE (100 species) are widely distributed. Larvae of these tiny flies appear to be scavengers in rotting plants or fungi.

Superfamily Carnoidea

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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