Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.24. Integripalpia. (A) Limnephilus indivisus (Limnephilidae) larva; (B) L. indivisus case; (C) Phry-ganea cinerea (Phryganeidae) case; (D) Helicopsyche borealis (Helicopsychidae) case; (E) Triaenodes tarda (Leptoceridae) adult; and (F) T. tarda larva in case. [A-D, from G. B. Wiggins, 1977, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). By permission of the Royal Ontario Museum. E, F, from H. H. Ross, 1944, The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 23:1-326. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Superfamily Sericostomatoidea

This small superfamily, comprising only about 300 species, is split into eight families by Weaver (1984), including the HELICOPSYCHIDAE and SERICOSTOMATIDAE, each with about 100 species. Though a small group, helicopsychids are widely distributed and include some of the best-known caddis larvae because they build cases of sand grains shaped like a snail shell (Figure 9.24D). Larvae live in running waters, both cool and warm, feeding mainly on algae and organic particles scraped from rocks. Sericostomatidae are also widely distributed, though absent from Australia. Their larvae are found in still or slow-moving waters, sometimes burrowing in loose sediments. They are detritivores and carry a curved case built of rock particles.

Superfamily Leptoceroidea

Only two of the seven families recognized by Weaver (1984) in this group of about 1000 species are of any size. The LEPTOCERIDAE (800 species) occur worldwide, and the adults are easily recognized by their antennae whose length may be twice that of the body (Figure 9.24E). The larvae are mainly omnivorous and live in standing water or slowly moving rivers, building very elongate cases of fine stones or sand. In some

276 species there is a changeover to the use of vegetable material in case construction by older instars (Figure 9.24F) when spiral cases similar to those of Phryganeidae may be built. CHAPTER 9 ^o^ir j c j

CALAMOCERATIDAE (100 species) are mainly subtropical caddisflies whose larvae are typically detritus feeders in marshes, coastal lakes, or slow-moving streams. Larvae build cryptic cases with pieces of leaf or bark, occasionally hollowing out twigs in which to live.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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