Thepanorpoid Orders

natural habitat. All geometroids belong to the family GEOMETRIDAE. Adults are generally small, slender-bodied, and with large wings that are held horizontally when the moths are resting. In some species females are apterous. Larvae, which frequently resemble twigs, have the anterior two or three pairs of prolegs reduced or absent. They are often known as geometers or inchworms because of the way they move in looping fashion. The family includes a number of important defoliators of fruit and shade trees, for example, Paleacrita vernata, the spring cankerworm (Figure 9.31), and Alsophilapometaria, the fall cankerworm.

Superfamily Drepanoidea

A group of about 1000 species with a wide distribution, the Drepanoidea are included in a single family, DREPANIDAE, by Nielsen and Common (1991). Many drepanids are known as hook-tip moths because of the sickle-shaped apical angle of the fore wings. Larvae feed on trees and shrubs, either exposed or in loosely rolled leaves.

Superfamily Uranioidea

Previously included in the Geometroidea by virtue of their tympanal organs, the 700 species of URANIIDAE have now been placed in their own superfamily following the appreciation that the organs have quite different structures in the two groups. Adults are medium to very large moths, often iridescent and with prominent "tails" on the hind wings. Larvae of this predominantly tropical family are sometimes gregarious web builders when young and feed on a variety of broad-leaved trees.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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