Thepanorpoid Orders

pattern either on or in it. Some species lay only a few eggs whereas others lay many 279


Larvae of almost all species are phytophagous, and no parts of plants remain unex-ploited. Because of their phytophagous habits and high reproductive rate, many species are important pests. Members of a few species are carnivorous or feed on various animal products. Larval development is usually rapid, and there may be several generations each year. However, in some species larval development requires 2 or 3 years for completion. In most Lepidoptera pupation takes place within a cocoon constructed in a variety of ways. It may be made entirely of silk or, more frequently, a mixture of silk and foreign materials. In primitive forms the pharate adult bites open the cocoon and wriggles out of it shortly before eclosion. However, eclosion frequently takes place within the cocoon, in which case the adult has various devices that facilitate escape. These include temporary spines for cutting open the cocoon and the secretion from the mouth of a special softening fluid. In many instances the cocoon itself is specially constructed to allow easy egress. Pupae ofbutterflies are usually naked and suspended from a small pad of silk attached to a support. This pad may represent the remains of the ancestral cocoon.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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