Thepanorpoid Orders

pupal stages of the two groups. The CHIRONOMIDAE (TENDIPEDIDAE) (Figure 9.8) constitute a large, widely distributed family of more than 5000 species. Adults are small, mosquitolike flies, though they do not feed. They often form massive swarms in the vicinity of water. Larvae are aquatic and either are free-living or lie buried in the substrate, members of many species constructing a special tube. The CERATOPOGONIDAE (biting midges, punkies, no-see-ums) (Figure 9.9) form a widespread family of minute or small flies, many females of which suck the blood of vertebrates and arthropods, or prey on other insects. Members of most species, however, feed on nectar and/or pollen and render considerable benefit through cross-fertilization of the plants. Larvae occupy a variety of moist habitats, including soil, moss, under bark, and in rock pools; they may be algiv-orous, saprophagous, mycophagous, or predaceous. The approximately 1100 species of SIMULIIDAE (black flies, buffalo gnats) (Figure 9.10) form a widespread family, females of which attack birds, mammals, and other insects. Several species of Simulium are of extreme importance as vectors for the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, which causes onchocerciasis (river blindness) in tropical Africa, Central America, northern South America, and Yemen. Other species transmit nematode, protozoan, and viral pathogens of birds and mammals, including livestock. The larvae are found in swiftly flowing water, attached

FIGURE 9.8. Culicomorpha. Chironomus tentans (Chironomi-dae). (A) Larva; and (B) pupa. [From O. A. Johannsen, 1937, Aquatic Diptera. Part IV. Chironomidae: Subfamily Chironomi-nae, Mem. Cornell Univ. Agri. Exp. Stn. 210:52 pp. By permission of Cornell University Agriculture Experimental Station.]

FIGURE 9.9. Culicomorpha. A punkie, Culicoides dovei (Ceratopogo-nidae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

FIGURE 9.10. Culicomorpha. A black fly, Simulium nigricoxum (Simuliidae). (A) Female; (B) mature larva; and (C) pupa. [From A. E. Cameron, 1922, The morphology and biology of a Canadian cattle-infesting black fly, Simulium simile Mall. (Diptera, Simuliidae), Bulletin #5—New Series (Technical). By permission of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.]

FIGURE 9.10. Culicomorpha. A black fly, Simulium nigricoxum (Simuliidae). (A) Female; (B) mature larva; and (C) pupa. [From A. E. Cameron, 1922, The morphology and biology of a Canadian cattle-infesting black fly, Simulium simile Mall. (Diptera, Simuliidae), Bulletin #5—New Series (Technical). By permission of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.]

to the substrate by an anal sucker, and are filter feeders or grazers. The THAUMALEIDAE (80 species) constitute a small, primarily holarctic family of minute midges whose affinities are uncertain. In some features its members resemble the other Culicomorpha, in others the Bibionomorpha.

Infraorder Bibionomorpha

This large and diverse group includes four major families. The BIBIONIDAE (March flies) (700 species) (Figure 9.11A) are robust, hairy flies of medium to small size. Large swarms, consisting largely of males, are seen in the Northern Hemisphere spring (hence, the common name). Larvae of this cosmopolitan group feed gregariously on roots or decaying vegetation. The MYCETOPHILIDAE (2000 species) and SCIARIDAE (500 species) are

FIGURE 9.11. Bibionomorpha. (A) A March fly, Bibio albipennis (Bibionidae); and (B) the Hessian fly, Phytophaga destructor (Cecidiomyiidae). [A, from D. J. Borror and D. M. Delong, 1971, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 3rd ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.]

sometimes included in a single family of the former name. They are commonly known as fungus gnats from the observation that the larvae feed mainly on fungi and decaying plant material. Adults are commonly encountered in cool, damp situations. The CECIDOMYIIDAE (gall midges) form a very large family (4000 species) of minute flies, most of which feed, in the larval stage, on plant tissues, frequently causing the formation of galls. There are, however, saprophagous or predaceous species. Within the family are several economically important species, for example, the Hessian fly, Phytophaga (= Mayetiola) destructor (Figure 9.11B), whose larvae feed on wheat shoots. Many species are paedoge-netic, the full-grown larvae becoming sexually mature and reproducing parthenogenetically. As the young larvae grow, they devour their parent from within. Several generations of pae-dogenetic larvae may develop in a season, and the larval population can thus increase enormously. Eventually, the larvae pupate normally and sexual reproduction follows.

Suborder Brachycera

Most Brachycera are rather stout flies with antennae having fewer than seven segments and, often, an arista; maxillary palps are unsegmented or two-segmented. Larvae are hemicephalous or acephalous (maggotlike), with sickle-shaped mandibles that move in the vertical plane.

Members of this suborder were traditionally placed in two subgroups, Orthorrhapha (Brachycera sensu stricto) and Cyclorrhapha, which were sometimes each given subordinal rank. It is now clear that the Orthorrhapha is a paraphyletic group, comprising the infraorders Tabanormorpha and Asilomorpha, and that the cyclorrhaphous forms, although monophyletic, merit only infraordinal status (Muscomorpha).

Infraorder Tabanomorpha

As constituted by McAlpine et al. (1981-1989), the Tabanomorpha includes seven families, three of which contain between them about 95% of the species. The largest family is the TABANIDAE (Figure 9.12A), with more than 3000 species, which includes those bloodsucking insects commonly known as horse and deer flies, clegs, March flies (in the Southern Hemisphere), and probably many other, less polite names! The bloodsuckers belong to only three genera, Tabanus, Chrysops, and Haematopota, whose evolution has

FIGURE 9.12. Tabanomorpha. (A) A horse fly, Tabanus opacus (Tabanidae); and (B) a soldier fly, Odontomyia hoodiana (Stratiomyidae). [A, from J. F. McAlpine, 1961, Variation, distribution and evolution of the Tabanus (Hybomitra) frontalis complex of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), Can. Entomol. 93:894-924. By permission of the Entomological Society of Canada. B, from F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment