Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.19. Hippoboscoidea. (A) Lynchia americana (Hippoboscidae), a parasite of owls and hawks; (B) a bat fly, Strebla vespertilionis (Streblidae); and (C) Cyclopodia greefi (Nycteribiidae). [A, from F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press. B, from Q. C. Kessel, 1925, A synopsis of the Streblidae of the world, J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 33:11-33. By permission of the New York Entomological Society. C, from H. Oldroyd, 1964, The Natural History of Flies, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. By permission of Mrs. J. M. Oldroyd.]

FIGURE 9.19. Hippoboscoidea. (A) Lynchia americana (Hippoboscidae), a parasite of owls and hawks; (B) a bat fly, Strebla vespertilionis (Streblidae); and (C) Cyclopodia greefi (Nycteribiidae). [A, from F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press. B, from Q. C. Kessel, 1925, A synopsis of the Streblidae of the world, J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 33:11-33. By permission of the New York Entomological Society. C, from H. Oldroyd, 1964, The Natural History of Flies, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. By permission of Mrs. J. M. Oldroyd.]

contrast to tsetse flies, which are strong fliers, hippoboscids rarely fly (indeed, some shed their wings after settling on a host). This group of about 330 species has a cosmopolitan distribution. They mainly parasitize birds but include some ungulates (Melophagus ovinus, the sheep ked is a major pest) and other mammals among their hosts. Most of the 160 species of Streblidae (bat flies) (Figure 9.19B) have wings, though these are pleated to facilitate movement through the host's fur. Females of Ascodipteron species shed their wings and legs and burrow into the host's skin. Most streblids are associated with colonial species of bats that roost in caves or forests and are found in tropical and subtropical regions. The Nycteribiidae (250 species) (Figure 9.19C) are wingless parasites of bats found mostly in warmer regions of the world.

There exists a massive volume of literature on Diptera, including many books, too numerous to mention specifically, on particular groups of flies or aspects of their biology. Oldroyd (1964) and Volumes 1 and 2 of the series edited by McAlpine etal. (1981-1989) are excellent sources of information on the biology of the group. Rohdendorf (1974), authors in Volume 3 of McAlpine et al. (1981-1989), Michelsen (1996), Friedrich and Tautz (1997), and Yeates and Wiegmann (1999) discuss the phylogeny and classification of the order. Griffiths (1994) [Brachycera], Oosterbroek and Courtney (1995) [Nematocera], Nagatomi

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Beekeeping for Beginners

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