Thepanorpoid Orders

Infraorder Psychodomorpha

About one half of the approximately 1000 species in this group are included in the PSYCHODIDAE (moth flies) (Figure 9.5), a widely distributed group of small flies recognizable by the hairy wings held rooflike over the body when at rest. Although most species do not feed as adults, some females feed on blood, including those of the genus Phlebotomus (sand flies), species of which are vectors of various virus- and leishmania-induced diseases. TRICHOCERIDAE (winter crane flies) (110 species, worldwide) are easily confused with the true crane flies. They carry the preference for cool, moist habitats to an extreme, and many species are common in caves and mines. Adults are often encountered in large swarms during winter. The SCATOPSIDAE form a worldwide family of about 200 species of mostly very small flies. Larvae are found in decaying organic material, both plant and animal. The ANISOPODIDAE (100 species) is a worldwide group of primitive Diptera whose larvae are found in decaying and fermenting organic matter.

Infraorder Ptychopteromorpha

This very small infraorder comprises two families, PTYCHOPTERIDAE (phantom crane flies) (60 species), found in all except the Australian and neotropical regions, and TANYDERIDAE (40 species), a mostly Australian group of crane flylike insects. In both families larvae are semiaquatic, living in the substrate at the edges of streams.

Infraorder Culicomorpha

Included in this large group of generally small and delicate flies are some extremely well-known Diptera. The group is divided into four large and three small families by McAlpine et al. (1981-1989). The general habits of the widespread families CULICIDAE (mosquitoes) (3000 species) (Figure 9.6) and CHAOBORIDAE (phantom midges) (75 species, often included as a subfamily of Culicidae) (Figure 9.7) present an interesting contrast. Larval mosquitoes are filter feeders that strain microorganisms from the water in which they live. Adult males do not feed, but females are voracious bloodsuckers and as such are responsible for the spread of some human and livestock diseases, for example, malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, West Nile, and equine encephalitis. (Some, incidentally, also spread the myxomatosis virus of rabbits and are, therefore, of some positive economic value.) Larval Chaoboridae, on the other hand, are predators (particularly of mosquito larvae!). The adults, however, are nectar feeders. The DIXIDAE form a small (150 species) but widely distributed group that is frequently considered a subfamily of the Culicidae, mainly on the basis of the adult wing venation and the similarity between the larval and

FIGURE 9.6. Culicomorpha. Mosquitoes. (A) Anopheles quadrimaculatus; (B) Anopheles sp. larva; (C) Anopheles sp. pupa; (D) Aedes canadiensis; (E) Culex pipiens; and (F) Culex sp. larva. [A, D, E, from S. J. Carpenter and W. J. LaCasse, 1955, Mosquitoes of North America. By permission of the University of California Press. A, E, drawn by Saburo Shibata. D, drawn by Kei Daishoji. B, C, F, from J. D. Gillett, 1971, Mosquitos, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. By permission of the author.]

FIGURE 9.6. Culicomorpha. Mosquitoes. (A) Anopheles quadrimaculatus; (B) Anopheles sp. larva; (C) Anopheles sp. pupa; (D) Aedes canadiensis; (E) Culex pipiens; and (F) Culex sp. larva. [A, D, E, from S. J. Carpenter and W. J. LaCasse, 1955, Mosquitoes of North America. By permission of the University of California Press. A, E, drawn by Saburo Shibata. D, drawn by Kei Daishoji. B, C, F, from J. D. Gillett, 1971, Mosquitos, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. By permission of the author.]

FIGURE 9.7. Culicomorpha. The clear lake gnat, Chaoborus astictopus (Chaoboridae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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