Thepanorpoid Orders

Suborder Spicipalpia

Members of this suborder have the following characters: five-segmented maxillary palps, with terminal segment identical to others and neither annulate nor flexible; females with a single anal-vaginal opening; larvae that build an imperforate silk cocoon in which to pupate.

Superfamily Rhyacophiloidea

The family RHYACOPHILIDAE (Figure 9.23A, B) contains the most archaic members of the order. Of the 450 species in the group, more than 90% belong to the genus Rhyacophila. The family is widely distributed though absent from the Australian, Ethiopian, and neotropical regions. Adults are generally brownish or mottled and vary in length from 3 to 13 mm. Larvae are mainly predaceous (rarely algivorous) and found only in clear, cold-water streams. They do not construct a portable case but move freely over the stream bed, producing a continuous strand of silk that serves as an anchor line. At maturation, larvae build a rough shelter of stones in which they spin a separate cocoon. HYDROBIOSIDAE (150 species), which have frequently been considered a subfamily of Rhyacophilidae, are restricted largely to the Australian and neotropical regions. The larvae are quite similar to those of Rhyacophilidae in habits, but some species are found in warmer waters and stagnant pools. GLOSSOSOMATIDAE (400 species distributed worldwide) are little different as adults from Rhyacophilidae. The different habits of the larvae are, however, considered sufficient justification for their separation. Larvae, found in swiftly flowing water, feed on algae scraped from rocks and live in saddlelike or turtle-shaped cases (Figure 9.23C);

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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