Thepanorpoid Orders

flying, nocturnal moths, generally grayish in color, often with dark wing spots. Larvae ("carpenter worms") are mainly wood borers, though a few live in soil and feed externally on plant roots.

Superfamily Tortricoidea

The Tortricoidea are small moths that are more common in temperate than in tropical regions. Adults are grayish or brownish, frequently mottled, moths. Larvae are concealed feeders, living in shelters formed by rolling leaves or tying several together, or as miners of fruits, seeds, bark, etc. All 4500 species are included in the family TORTRICIDAE, a group that has several major widespread pests, for example, Cydia pomonella (codling moth) (Figure 9.29), whose larvae mine in apples, Grapholita molesta (oriental fruit moth), a pest of stone fruit, and Choristoneura spp. (budworm moths), which are important defoliators of a variety of evergreens (see Chapter 22, Section 5.1).

Superfamily Castnioidea

The superfamily Castnioidea contains only about 160 species in one family, CASTNIIDAE, distributed in tropical America, India, Malaysia, and Australia. The adults are brightly colored and in some respects resemble nymphalid or hesperid butterflies, a feature that led some authors to mistakenly suggest that they are the ancestral group from which butterflies are derived.

Superfamily Sesioidea

About 95% of sesioids are included in two families, CHOREUTIDAE (400 species mostly in the Old World tropics) and SESIIDAE (1000 species worldwide). Choreutids are mostly diurnal moths with metallic-colored wings. Larvae are typically solitary web builders among leaves but occasionally live gregariously or are stem borers. Sesiids, commonly called clearwings, mimic wasps and bees, not only in structure but also in behavior. Their larvae

FIGURE 9.29. Tortricoidea. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae). (A) Adult; and (B) mature larva on apple (cut away to show damage). [A, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc.]

FIGURE 9.29. Tortricoidea. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae). (A) Adult; and (B) mature larva on apple (cut away to show damage). [A, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc.]

are typically stem borers in woody or herbaceous plants and can become pests of currants, gooseberries, raspberries, grape vines, and cucurbits.

Superfamily Zygaenoidea

Most of the nine zygaenoid families included by Nielsen and Common (1991) are very small. Zygaenoid larvae are typically stout, sluglike animals that are exposed feeders on plants; a few are parasitic on homopterans or live in ant nests. ZYGAENIDAE (burnets, foresters), a widespread group of about 800 species, are diurnal, sometimes brightly colored (and probably distasteful) moths whose larvae are leaf feeders. LIMACODIDAE (1000 species, especially tropical) have larvae that are remarkably sluglike, with the head hidden by the prothorax, long antennae, very small thoracic legs, and prolegs replaced by suckers. The larvae are often aposematically colored and have stinging hairs.

Superfamily Immoidea

This small (240 species) tropical group is placed in the single family IMMIDAE. Adults are small, stocky, nocturnal moths. Larvae are exposed feeders on foliage.

Superfamily Urodoidea

This superfamily, and its single family URODIDAE, was recently erected for about 60 species previously included in the Yponomeutoidea. Most species occur in South and Central America. Larvae are exposed feeders on broad-leaved trees.

Superfamily Schreckensteinioidea

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