Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.3. A suggested phylogeny of the Diptera. [After J. F. McAlpine and D. M. Wood, coordinators, 1989, Manual ofNearctic Diptera, Vol. 3, Agriculture Canada Monograph No. 32. By permission of the Minister of Supply and Services Canada.]

earlier systems. Within the Muscomorpha, there are two easily defined but very unequally sized sections, the probably paraphyletic Aschiza and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter has two subdivisions, Acalyptratae and Calyptratae.

Suborder Nematocera

Most Nematocera are small, delicate flies, with 6- to 14-segmented antennae of simple structure, and 3- to 5-segmented maxillary palps. Larvae have a well-developed head and chewing mandibles that move in the horizontal plane.

FIGURE 9.4. Tipulomorpha. A crane fly, Tipula trivittata (Tipulidae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969. The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

The suborder contains the oldest families of Diptera, most of which are now on the decline. Some, however, like the Culicidae, have undergone relatively recent radiations and are among the most successful modern groups.

Infraorder Tipulomorpha

Members of this group are placed in the single family TIPULIDAE (Figure 9.4) (crane flies, daddy longlegs), which, with about 14,000 species (including > 1500 in North America), is the largest family of Diptera. Representatives of this worldwide family are mostly associated with moist, temperate habitats, though some occur in open meadows, rangelands, and deserts. Adults range in size from small (wingspan of 2 mm) to very large (wingspan up to 8 cm). Larvae are found in a wide variety of habitats from strictly aquatic to dry soils where they typically feed on plant material or decaying organic matter; occasionally, they become pests by feeding on seedling field crops.

Infraorder Blephariceromorpha

Almost all members of this small group are included in the widely distributed family BLEPHARICERIDAE (net-winged midges) (200 species). Adults are slender flies with long legs, and in both sexes the eyes are holoptic. In some species both sexes feed on nectar; in others females catch smaller flies and feed on their hemolymph. Adults are generally found near fast-flowing streams; the aquatic larvae attach themselves to rocks where they feed on diatoms and algae.

Infraorder Axymyiomorpha

Containing only five species in the one family AXYMYIIDAE, the taxonomic position of this group is controversial, and other authorities have included it in a variety of other nematoceran families. Species occur in North America, eastern Europe, and Siberia. Adults are stout-bodied flies that resemble Bibionidae. Larvae live in cavities excavated in rotting wood, perhaps feeding on fungi or other microorganisms.

FIGURE 9.5. Psychodomorpha. A moth fly, Psychoda sp. (Psychodidae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

FIGURE 9.5. Psychodomorpha. A moth fly, Psychoda sp. (Psychodidae). [From F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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