Thepanorpoid Orders

FIGURE 9.21. A suggested phylogeny of Trichoptera.

authorities suggesting that this group's affinities lie with the Annulipalpia and others taking the view that it belongs with the Integripalpia. A third point of view, supported by some morphological and molecular studies of extant species, is that the rhyacophiloids are sufficiently distinct as to constitute a separate suborder Spicipalpia (closed-cocoon makers), with the remaining species falling into the more narrowly defined suborders Annulipalpia (fixed-retreat makers) and Integripalpia (portable-case makers). In this scheme the Annulipalpia is the sister group to the Integripalpia + Spicipalpia. Whereas the Annulipalpia and Inte-gripalpia are generally accepted as monophyletic, there are differing opinions on whether the Spicipalpia are monophyletic or paraphyletic. A possible phylogeny of the group is illustrated in Figure 9.21.

Suborder Annulipalpia

Members of this suborder are united by the following features: adults with five-segmented maxillary palps, the terminal segment being annulate, flexible, and at least twice as long as the preceding segment; females with a single anal-vaginal opening; larvae campodeiform, prognathous, and fixed-retreat makers; at maturity, larvae construct a rough shelter of stones in which they produce their perforate cocoon. The suborder includes two superfamilies, the Philopotamoidea and Hydropsychoidea.

FIGURE 9.22. Annulipalpia. (A) Chimarra sp. (Philopotamidae) larva; (B) Neureclipsis bimaculata (Polycen-tropodidae) larva; (C) capturing net of N. bimaculata, arrow indicating direction of current; (D) Hydropsyche simulans (Hydropsychidae) larva; and (E) H. simulans adult. [A-C, from G. B. Wiggins, 1977, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). By permission of the Royal Ontario Museum. D, E, from H. H. Ross, 1944, The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 23:1-326. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

FIGURE 9.22. Annulipalpia. (A) Chimarra sp. (Philopotamidae) larva; (B) Neureclipsis bimaculata (Polycen-tropodidae) larva; (C) capturing net of N. bimaculata, arrow indicating direction of current; (D) Hydropsyche simulans (Hydropsychidae) larva; and (E) H. simulans adult. [A-C, from G. B. Wiggins, 1977, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). By permission of the Royal Ontario Museum. D, E, from H. H. Ross, 1944, The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 23:1-326. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Superfamily Philopotamoidea

About 90% of the 470 described species in this group are included in the widely distributed family PHILOPOTAMIDAE (Figure 9.22A), adults of which are small (6-9 mm long) and generally have brownish bodies and gray or blackish wings. Sometimes females are apterous. Larvae live in fast-flowing streams and build tubular webs whose entrance is larger than the exit. A larva stays in its web and feeds on algae and fine organic particles caught in it.

Superfamily Hydropsychoidea

Of the six families in this group, three (PSYCHOMYIIDAE, POLYCENTROPODI-DAE, and HYDROPSYCHIDAE) are quite large and common, including between them about 75% of the species. Psychomyiidae (150 species) are found in all but the neotropical region. Larvae, which are mostly found in cool, running waters, build silken tubes covered with particles of sand or detritus on rocks or logs where they feed on algae, etc. Larvae of Polycentropodidae (300 species) (Figure 9.22B) occur worldwide in both running and standing waters. Some build silken tubes or sheets covering depressions in rocks and are predaceous; others have funnel-shaped nets that filter food material (Figure 9.22C). The widespread family Hydropsychidae (900 species) (Figure 9.22D,E) includes mainly species associated with streams or rivers, though some are found along wave-washed lake shores. Larvae live in fixed retreats made from plant material or rock particles on logs or rocks, in front of which they build a cup-shaped net to trap algae, organic material, or mi-croinvertebrates. The mesh size is characteristic of both the species and its position in the stream.

FIGURE 9.23. Spicipalpia. (A) Rhyacophila fuscula (Rhyacophilidae) larva; (B) Rhyacophila fenestra adult; and (C) Glossosoma sp. (Glossosomatidae) case with larva. [A, C, from G. B. Wiggins, 1977, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). By permission of the Royal Ontario Museum. B, from H. H. Ross, 1944, The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 23:1-326. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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