Thepanorpoid Orders

Boreidss are small, with hooklike wings in males used to grasp the female during mating, 243

and scalelike reduced wings in females. They are sometimes called "snow fleas" as they may be found walking or jumping on snow patches. Only two, widely disjunct species, Austromerope poultoni (Western Australia) and Merope tuber (eastern United States), are placed in the MEROPEIDAE. These are cockroachlike in appearance as their head is largely hidden beneath the enlarged pronotum. Males have elongate genitalia possibly used in fighting for females. Notiothauma reedi, found in central Chile, is the only member of the NOTIOTHAUMIDAE. Similarly, Apteropanorpa tasmanica from Tasmania, which resembles boreids in general form and habits, is the sole representative of the APTEROPANORPIDAE. CHORISTIDAE, with only eight species, are restricted to Australia. The two remaining families, PANORPODIDAE and PANORPIDAE (Figure 9.2B), are the most specialized mecopteran groups. The former includes only two genera, Brachypanorpa (four species in the United States) and Panorpodes (five species in Japan and Korea), while the latter is the largest mecopteran family (300 species) with an essentially holarctic distribution, though it has representatives in Asia.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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