Accessory Pulsatile Organs

Accessory pumps associated with the wings, legs and antennae move hemolymph into the extremities. In some insects, the pulsatile organs of the wings may be derived from the heart pump directly, but in bees these pulsatile organs are separate from the heart. Accessory pulsatile organs maintain circulation within the appendages. Flow to and from the accessory pumps mixes hemolymph moving in the hemocoel with hemolymph circulating through the appendages. Contractions of these accessory pumps may be intrinsic to the muscles that comprise them, or nerves may control the pumping.

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