Cardiac Output

What is a bee's cardiac output? How long it takes for hemolymph to make a complete circuit depends on how fast the dorsal vessel beats, the volumes of hemolymph pumped in an interval as well as other factors. Multiplying the volume per beat and the beat frequency gives an estimate of the volume of hemolymph that traverses the dorsal vessel in an interval or the cardiac output. Activity, whether walking, flying or resting, the developmental stage, hydration and temperature, play contributory roles. Few measurements of circulation time through a hemocoel exist. Esch in 1960 observed a circulation time of two minutes in an adult bee (Ref: Esch, 1960).

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