Circulation of Hemolymph

Combined movements of the dorsal and ventral membranes beating together with a pumping heart and pitching and yawing movements of locomotion as well as pulsations of the alimentary canal and other organs together mix and circulate hemolymph.

Peristaltic contractions of the open pump system of the dorsal longitudinal vessel that opens into the hemocoel are the prime movers circulating hemolymph. However, hemolymph in embryonic forms may not appear to circulate rhythmically. Muscular contractions of the body wall, movements of ovaries, air sacs and the alimentary canal as well and walking and flying undoubtedly enhance flow of hemolymph. In some nymphs, for example, transverse septa in the thorax open and close synchronized with respiratory movements, facilitating movement of hemolymph (Jones, 1997: p. 80).

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