Copper Iron and Ordered Structure

Biological molecules such as proteins often coupled to inorganic atoms such as iron or copper may control molecular interactions and biochemical pathways. Most solids do not usually consist of a single phase, because defects and boundaries exist across different kinds of domains. It is what happens at the boundaries, often between domains of energy, that determines how information and materials pass through the system. Engineering utilizes the macroscopic as well as the microscopic, and micro-technologies let us work within larger and smaller scales at the same time. Macroscopic materials having a crystalline structure (a complete long range ordering of molecules) and liquids and glasses having short-range order and little long-range order, as well as gases having little short-range order, might all be coerced into operating together within living systems.

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