Flow of Hemolymph

The aorta directs hemolymph onto the brain. This hemolymph supplies organs in the head before draining backwards through the neck into the thorax and abdomen. Pulsating membranes in the head between the bases of the antennae and elsewhere driven by neighboring muscles force hemolymph to move along well-defined channels that circulate hemolymph through the appendages: the antennae, the wings and the legs. Movements of the ventral and dorsal diaphragms may help to channel these lesser flows. Hemolymph flows from regions of the abdomen around the ventral nerve cord upward into the pericardial space above the dorsal diaphragm. This hemolymph then circulates forward aided by movements of the dorsal diaphragm finally to enter through holes or ostia along the length of the heart. Within the heart, contractions force hemolymph to move again to the head through the aorta.

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