Hemolymph

The spaces in the hemocoel, unoccupied by organs or tissues, contain hemolymph, that in honeybees is a pale, amber-colored fluid. Hemolymph arises in the embryonic or developing bee as a mixture of 'blood' and 'lymph.' Hemolymph contains many chemicals as well as blood cells or hemocytes that resembling white blood cells of vertebrates. There are no red blood cells in hemolymph. Chemicals include sodium, chloride, amino acids, proteins, hormones, nitrogenous wastes, dissolved carbon dioxide, and many others. The chemical composition and volume of hemolymph change during starvation, desiccation, feeding and at different developmental stages. (For the chemistry and cells of hemolymph and direct measures of the volumes of hemolymph in bees and other insects, see books by Jones, 1997 and Chapman, 1998.)

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